AUTHORS, PUBLISHERS, ORGANIZATIONS, SUBJECTS, CATEGORIES

A
(UPDATE: April 4, 2010)
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

THE BRADSHAW'S ARCHIVES -

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC /

UBANGI-SHARI
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


AA.VV. cf. AUTORI VARI (Various Authors)

Note: AA.VV. is used in Italian to indicate various unspecified authors

AA.VV. Vita Missionaria in Centrafrica. Dodici anni di attività dei Cappuccini emiliani (Vie Missionnaire en Centrafrique. Douze ans d'activités des Capuchins Emiliens). Roma: 1977.

AA.VV. Missione di Batangafo. La seconda visita canonica 7 nov.-13 dic.e. 1971 (Mission de Batangafo. La deuxième visite canonique 7 nov.-13 déc. 1971). Parma: 1971.

AA.VV. 25 anni di brousse. La presenza dei Cappuccini Emiliani nel Centrafrica (25 ans de brousse. La présence des Capuchins Emiliens en Centrafrique), Frate Francesco, 65, 10 (1988):??.

AA.VV. I Carmelitani Scalzi in Centrafrica fra cronaca e storia (Les Carmes Déchaussés en Centrafrique entre chronique et histoire), Messaggero del Bambin Gesù di Praga in Arenzano, 12 (1991):??-??.

AA.VV. Sulle piste misteriose del Regno di Dio. Vita Missionaria nell'Africa Equatoriale (Sur les pistes mystérieuses du Royaume de Dieu. Vie Missionnaire en Afrique Equatoriale). Sanremo: Fraternitas, 1964.

ABARI cf. FAO
Mai Moussa Abari, FAO Representation in Central African Republic, FAO-CF@fao.org

ABBO cf. CHRISTENSON, LUTHERAN MISSION, GBAYA
Secrétaire Abbo, a Gbaya male interviewed by Thomas G. Christenson in c. 1980?

Another zora [ritual pot] to which the chief and the ko-gangmo [woman of peace] are both related is the zora-dengimo, or amaryllis pot. [Dénis] Adzia and [Secrétaire] Abbo explain that when a new village site is desired, but for reasons not sufficiently critical to ask for chief's nephew for ritual assistance, the chief himself will seek a soré [Anona senegalensis] tree at the new site. He takes a soré leaf in his hand, knots it, and invokes a blessing: "I bind up a new village right here! May peace and health reign in our village! May we find abundant food in this place!" Then he builds a new house next to the soré tree. The morning following the first night spent in his new house, the chief rises very early. He unties the knotted soré leaf, saying, "My village that I bound up right here, I now open it up! May no danger come to us here! May death stay away! May our village grow, and may our wives give birth to many children!" (Christenson, An African Tree of Life, p. 44)

ABOSSOLO cf. NGOUANJIKA, NGOUPANDE, LAKOUE, MASSI
Joseph Abossolo, businessman and candidate for president in 1999

"Ten presidential candidates confirmed." IRIN, 30 July 1999.
NAIROBI, 30 Jul 1999 (IRIN) - The Constitutional Court in Bangui on Friday published the official list of 10 candidates for the presidential election, the first round of which is scheduled for late August. The country’s five leading political figures have declared their candidacy as expected, Radio France Internationale reported. They included President Ange-Felix Patasse, two former heads of state, Andre Kolingba and David Dacko, and two former prime ministers, Enoch-Derant Lakoue and Jean-Paul Ngoupande. The other candidates confirmed were: Abel Goumba, who was unsuccessful in the 1993 presidential elections; Justice Henri Pouzere, a lawyer at Libreville Courts; businessman Joseph Abossolo; former minister Charles Massi; and telecommunications engineer Fidele Ngouanjika.

ABRAM

Abram, Dave. "Sounds From the African Rainforest." In Broughton, Simon and Mark Ellingham, Mark with James McConnachie and Orla Duane, eds. World Music, Vol. 1: Africa, Europe and the Middle East. Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin Books, 2000, pp. 601-607.

ABT ASSOCIATES cf. ABTASSOC.com
www.abtassoc.com Bethesda, MD & Cambridge, MA
Note: "Abt Associates applies rigorous research and consulting techniques to a wide range of issues in social and economic policy, international development, business research and consulting, and clinical trials and registries." (www.abtassoc.com)
Note: "Employee-owned Abt Associates is one of the world's largest for-profit government and business research and consulting firms... In 2001, Abt Associates paid Patton Boggs $80,000 to lobby the US House of Representatives, the U.S. Senate... " (www.publicintegrity.org/wow/bio.aspx?act=pro&ddlC=1"

Cf. "Central African Republic Health Economics Analysis"

"Under the Health Financing and Sustainability Act, Abt Associates provided economic analysis to the team designing a five-year $14 million child survival and cost recovery project for the Central African Republic. The analysis included the cost effectiveness of interventions such as immunization, prevention and control of diarrheal disease, malaria, HIV/AIDS, and high-risk births. In addition, the project required several other analyses in order to determine the sustainability of the projects, including an analysis of the national budget for the years 1985-1991, recommendations for improving efficiency in the public health system, analysis of the economic benefits of implementing a generic drug policy, and a discussion of the potential revenue generation from cost recovery efforts at hospitals and peripheral facilities."
(www.abtassociates.com/Page.cfm?PageID=1600&FamilyID=1600&OWID=2109767171&CSB=1)

Cf. Derriennic, Yann. Trip Report for Central African Republic, 20 February 1994 (Trip Report for Central African Republic). Abt Associates, 1994.

Cf. McInnes, Keith. Summary of Technical Assistance Reports: Health Financing and Cost Recovery Systems in the Central African Republic (1986-1993) (Technical Note). Abt Associates, 1993.

ABTASSOC.com cf. ABT ASSOCIATES
www.abtassoc.com

ABUBAKAR

Abubakar, Sa'ad. The Lamibe of Fombina: a political history of Adamawa, 1809-1901. London & Zaria, 1977. This study focuses on Yola but includes information about the Adamawa emirates, including Ngaoundere, which sent slave raiding expeditions into Gbaya territory in what is today the CAR.

ACABEF cf. ASSOCIATION CENTRAFRICAINE POUR LE BIEN ÊTRE FAMILIAL (NGO)
Note: L'Association Centrafricaine pour le Bien Être Familial (ACABEF), formed in 1986, is assisting the government in its formation and implementation of a National Population Policy. With over a thousand volunteers, ACABEF runs a model clinic in Bangui, which aims to improve access to contraception and other reproductive health services. ACABEF also has a project focusing on empowerment and economic security. ACABEF's work targets adolescent reproductive health as well as the needs of rural and peri-urban women. (www.womenwarpeace.org/car/central_african.htm)

NAIROBI, 18 Jul 2001 (IRIN) - Thousands of people who fled the violence that followed the attempted coup in the Central African Republic capital Bangui in late May have returned to their homes, and others are arriving daily, aid agencies and witnesses said on Thursday. According to AFP, the agencies - Italian NGO COOPI, local organisation ACABEF and the Central African branch of the Red Cross - said about 10,000 of the estimated 60,000 to 70,000 residents who joined the exodus had returned. Witnesses told AFP that each day further groups of people, weighed down with the possessions they took with them, were arriving home. The agencies told AFP they had been caring for some 50,000 people who fled to the Lobaye district south of Bangui in the wake of the failed 28 May 28 coup.

ACCESSIBLE INFORMATION ON DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES
Note: Includes information on many development projects in the CAR.
aida.developmentgateway.org/SearchRouter.do?frame=1&sectorSelected=6700&countrySelected=CAF&count=1&SearchPrompt=N&type=Simple&sortBy=name.
default&countrySelectedValues=Central%20African%20Republic&sectorSelectedValues=Health


ACCT Cf. AGENCY FOR THE FRENCH SPEAKING COMMUNITY

Note: Formerly Agency for Cultural and Technical Cooperation
http://www.francophonie.org/oif/

Cf. LETAC (Lexiques Thematiques de l'Afrique Centrale). Education et formation. Paris & Yaounde: ACCT & CERDOTOLA, 1984.

ACTION ÉCONOMIQUE ET SOCIALE Cf. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ACTION CONSEIL REPRESENTATIF DE L'OUBANGUI-CHARI, REPRESENTATIVE COUNCIL OF UBANGI-SHARI
A political party started by Barthélemy Boganda and his lieutenants for elections to the Representative Council of Ubangi-Shari in 1946

On 25 October 1946, a Representative Council of Ubangi-Shari was established by decree and elections were set to take place on 15 December. The colony was divided into only four huge voting districts: Bangui, Berberati (southwest), Sibut (north-central), and Bangassou (southeast). After Boganda’s departure for Paris, George Darlan and a small group of his lieutenants drew up a list of candidates for the Action Economique et Sociale (Economic and Social Action) party in all four districts which received the backing of both the Catholic missions and the French administration because they wanted to limit the influence of Alibert and Gandji-Kobokassi....
Gamona, Bafatori and Gono were elected in Berberati, Georges Darlan, Bernard Condomat, Henri Kinkol, Jacque Koppe and Arthur Onghaie in Bangui, Antoine Darlan, Benoit Mombeto, Louis Yetina, Barthelemy Zinga-Piroua, and Pierre Enza in Sibut, and Vermaud Hetman and Ibrahim Tello in Bangassou. The socialists running for election in Bangui were Jean-Marie Kobozo, Alphonse Dongouale, Barnabe Nzilavo, Theophile Ngini, and Tiemoko-Darra. The socialists-communists in Sibut were Antoine Gabati, Ferdinand Bassamongou, Emile Embi-Maidou, Gabriel Pounaba, and Augustin Bayonne. (Pénel, Boganda, p. 33).

ACTION.web Cf. AFRICANACTION.org & GLOBALWITNESS.org
action.web.ca/home/pac/attach/car_e.pdf

Cf. Dietrich, Christian. "Hard Currency: The Criminalized Diamond Economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and its Neighbors," The Diamonds and Human Security Project, Occasional Paper 2??, June 2002,
action.web.ca/home/pac/attach/hc_report_e.pdf

ADAMA-TAMBOUX

Adama-Tamboux, Michel. 4 ans de législature. Bangui: Imprimerie Centrale d'Afrique, 1964, 215p.

The Union nationale centrafricaine, founded by Michel Adama Tamboux, president of the National Assembly from 1960 to 1965, and ambassador to the UN and then to Egypt between 1970 and 1979. (ACR, 1981, B408)

ADAMBY

Adamby, Alpha Nationy Zentho, “Barthelemy Boganda ou l’abbe Gregoire de l’Afrique coloniale,” Revue juridique et politique: Indépendence et coopération, 44, 1 (Jan.-March 1990):60-65.

ADAMOLKUN

Adamolkun, Ladipo. "World Bank support for public administration programs in the Central African Republic." EDI working paper. Economic Development Institute of the World Bank, 1988.

ADENIJI
Oluyemi Adeniji, UN Secretary-General Annan's Special Representative and head of  the UN Mission in the Central African Republic (MINURCA) in 1999.

Cf. "Council urges joint reconciliation efforts." IRIN, 22 March 1999.
NAIROBI, 22 Mar 1999 (IRIN) - The UN Security Council last week called on all political leaders in the CAR to work together towards full implementation of the Bangui Agreements and the National Reconciliation Pact. In a statement, Council President Qin Huasun of China said members also urged the government, in collaboration with all political parties, to take concrete steps to establish a new electoral commission for presidential elections, scheduled for later this year, and to continue efforts to restructure its security forces. The statement was made after the Council received a briefing on the situation in the country by the UN Secretary-General’s Special Representative, Oluyemi Adeniji, who is also head of the UN Mission in the Central African Republic (MINURCA).

"Looted weapons destroyed." IRIN, 13 July 1999.
NAIROBI, 13 Jul 1999 (IRIN) - Some 158 light weapons were destroyed in the capital, Bangui, on Friday as part of a disarmament operation undertaken by the UN Mission in CAR (MINURCA). In a statement received by IRIN on Monday, MINURCA said the destroyed weapons, thrown into fire during a symbolic ceremony, were either defective or of unknown origin and had been recuperated by MINURCA or the former African MISAB forces since 1997. "This destruction of weapons constitutes....a systematic rejection of the instruments of war,"
UN Special Representative Oluyemi Adeniji was quoted as saying in the statement. He added this "proved that the people of CAR have understood that those instruments contribute to a form of regression and to hindering development". Some 1,590 light and heavy weapons - out of 2,507 that were looted - have been recuperated since the start of the operation, which followed clashes between army mutineers and MISAB forces in June 1997. Also collected were 500,000 bullets and 27,000 explosives, the statement said. Recuperated weapons that are not destroyed will be handed over to local authorities at the end of MINURCA's mandate. Meanwhile, UNDP has provided funds to compensate civilians who return weapons, the statement added.

ADHERENTS.com - RELIGION BY LOCATION (religion, demography, etc.)
www.adherents.com/adhloc/Wh_64.html - 49k -
Includes over 42,000 religious geography and religion statistics citations (membership statistics for over 4,000 different religions, denominations, tribes, etc.) for every country in the world. Demonstrates that statistics for membership in Central African churches are only very approximate.

Cf. "Central African Republic." Adherents.com
www.adherents.com/adhloc/Wh_64.html - 49k -

ADJIKEZANE

Adjikezane, Jean-Claude. 1988. "Attitudes et opinions face au sango des émissions médicales à la radio". Mémoire de Licence [Senior Thesis], Université de Bangui.

Adjikezane, Jean-Claude. 1991. "Esquisse de la terminologie sango du Rassemblement Démocratique Africain (R.D.A.)". Mémoire de Maîtrise [M.A. thesis], Université de Bangui.

ADLER

Adler, Alfred. L’échange différé: esquisse d’une analyse comparative (Deferred exchange: a comparative analysis). Paris: Université de Paris X, Laboratory of ethnology and comparative sociology, in Singularités Paris, Plon, 1989, pp. 369-400.

ADLER

Adler, J., D. Glick, P. King, J. Gordon and A. Cohen. "Been there, done that." Newsweek, 19 June 1993, pp. 42-49.

ADLOFF

Thompson, V. and R. Adloff. The Emerging States of Equatorial Africa. Standford: Standford University Press, 1960.

ADOLPH, C.

Adolph, Carolyn Joy. "Intercultural Nursing in Central African Republic." Marion, IN: Marion College, Division of Nursing Education, 1983.

ADOLPH, D.

Adolph, David Harold. “Agricultural Mechanizations in the Central African Republic Using Renewable Fuels.” Ph.D. diss. Washington University, 1985.

ADOUM-PICKANDA

Adoum-Pickanda, Fidel. “L’impact des relations franco-centrafricaines sur le politique exterieure a la Centrafrique: De l’Independence à la chute du l’Empire,” Ph.D. diss., University of Haute Bretagne, 1987.

ADRIEN-RONGIER (social life, education, urbanization)

Adrien-Rongier, Marie-France. “Les Kodro de Bangui: un espace urbain 'oublié'” (The Kodro of Bangui: a 'forgotten' urban area). Cahiers d’Etudes Africaines, (1981):93-118.

Adrien-Rongier, Marie-France. Eveil à la vie centrafricaine. Bangui: Ministère des Affaires Social and UNICEF, 1979. Education.

Adrien-Rongier, Marie-France. "Première enfance dans la société gbaya booro. Ecole des Hautes Etudes, 1977. 177p.

Adrien-Rongier, Marie-France and Mdarhi-Alaoui, Abdallah. [Les ]Héritières de Kooro de l'Ouham à Bangui (République Centrafricaine). Paris: Ecole des hautes études en sciences sociales, 1992, 335 p

ADRISS
Bernard Adriss of the journal Le Centrafriqu'un.

Cf. "Sanctions contre quatre journalistes." Afrique Centrale, 3 September 2005,

www. afriquecentrale.info/fr/news/news.asp?rubID=1&srubID=4&themeID=1&newsID=2854
L’Union des journalistes de Centrafrique (UJCA) a suspendu jusqu’à nouvel ordre quatre de ses membres accusés de manquements répétés à l’éthique et à la déontologie professionnelles, a annoncé samedi le président de l’UJCA Maka Gbossokotto. Ces quatre journalistes de la presse privée, Dieudonné Songo et Bernard Adriss du journal "Le Centrafriqu’un", Frédéric Megnet Tonga du journal "L’Arbre qui parle" et Adrien Poussou du journal "L’Indépendant", sont désormais interdits de conférences de presse et de séminaires, a précisé M. Gbossokotto dans un communiqué. L’UJCA a également interdit à leurs directeurs de publication de faire appel à eux pour un quelconque reportage sous peine de suspendre leurs titres. Selon le conseil exécutif de l’UJCA, ces quatre reporters ont fait preuve d’un "comportement à tout le moins incorrect et non professionnel (...) lors des différents séminaires et conférences de presse organisés récemment". Ces journalistes, a ajouté le conseil exécutif, sont "régulièrement classés dans cette catégorie de fossoyeurs de la déontologie et de l’éthique professionnelles par l’opinion nationale, et se comportent plus en chasseurs de per diem et de séminaires qu’en chasseurs d’informations". "Ce faisant, ils prêtent le flanc aux critiques acerbes de l’opinion publique nationale et internationale, plus particulièrement du pouvoir, décrédibilisant ainsi le noble métier qu’ils ont librement choisi", a conclu le communiqué de l’UJCA. La quasi-totalité des journalistes ne bénéficient pas de formation en Centrafrique, où il n’existe pas d’école préparant à leur métier. "Sanctions contre quatre journalistes."
Afrique Centrale, 3 September 2005, www.afriquecentrale.info/fr/news/news.asp?rubID=1&srubID=4&themeID=1&newsID=2854)

ADZIA cf. ABBO, CHRISTENSON, LUTHERAN MISSION, GBAYA
Dénis Adzia, a Gbaya male interviewed by Thomas G. Christenson in c. 1980?

Another zora [ritual pot] to which the chief and the ko-gangmo [woman of peace] are both related is the zora-dengimo, or amaryllis pot. [Dénis] Adzia and [Secrétaire] Abbo explain that when a new village site is desired, but for reasons not sufficiently critical to ask for chief's nephew for ritual assistance, the chief himself will seek a soré [Anona senegalensis] tree at the new site. He take a soré leaf in his hand, knots it, and invokes a blessing: "I bind up a new village right here! May peace and health reign in our village! May we find abundant food in this place!" Then he builds a new house next to the soré tree. The morning following the first night spent in his new house, the chief rises very early. He unties the knotted soré leaf, saying, "My village that I bound up right here, I now open it up! May no danger come to us here! May death stay away! May our village grow, and may our wives give birth to many children!" (Christenson, An African Tree of Life, p. 44)

Adzia explains that knotting the soré leaf symbolically draws the villagers together in one place under the peace established by the soré and prevents them from scattering into various other settlements. Untying the soré leaf indicates that the villagers have indeed settled in a new place. Their new village is now visible; henceforth, they are free to lead a new life. (Christenson, An African Tree of Life, p. 44)

AFP cf. AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE

"Election results announced." IRIN, 23 December 1998.
NAIROBI, 23 Dec 1998 (IRIN) - The party of President Ange-Felix Patasse, the Mouvement de liberation du peuple centrafricain (MLPC) won 49 of the 109 seats in the legislative elections of 22 November and 13 December, AFP said yesterday. Citing results released by the constitutional court in the capital Bangui, AFP said eight opposition parties won a total of 53 seats and the remaining seven seats were won by independent candidates. As no party got an absolute majority in the new parliament, the seven independent candidates hold the balance of power needed to form a government, it added.

AFRICA ACTION Cf. AFRICA POLICY E-JOURNAL
http://www.africaaction.org cf. http://www.africaaction.org/resources/ejournal.php
http://www.africaaction.org/support/ e-journal@africaaction.org.

Cf. Dietrich, Christian. "Hard Currency: The Criminalized Diamond Economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and its Neighbours (Summary)" www.africaaction.org/docs02/cent0206.htm

AFRICA CONFIDENTIAL (FORTNIGHTLY BULLETIN)
www.africa-confidential.com/index.aspx?pageid=22&countryid=9
Note: Search for articles about the CAR. Also search Country Index.
Cf. "Bozize's Win."Vol 46 Number 11, 27th May 2005
"A Putschist's progress." Vol 46 Number 6, 18th March 2005
"Aristide's Lavalas." Vol 45 Number 6, 19th March 2004

Africa Confidential, 21, 19 (Sept 1980); 25, 16 (Aug 1984); 26, 24 (Feb 1985), etc.

AFRICA CONSULTING

Africa Consulting. "Evaluation Sociale et Institutionelle, République Centrafricaine, Rapport Final." Unpublished report written on behalf of the World Bank, January 1999.

AFRICA CONTEMPORARY RECORD / AFRICANA PUBLICATIONS Cf. ACR

Africa Contemporary Record. New York & London: Africana Publications, 1968-.

1983
When Gen. André Kolingba became Head of State in a military coup in September 1981, he suspended the Constitution and all political party activities but allowed political leaders to retain their freedom. Members of the military regime tended to support one or other of the political parties or their leaders - among them, Dr Abel Goumba, leader of the Oubangui Popular Front-Labour Party (FPO-PT). He was appointed Vice-Chancellor of the University of Bangui in January 1982. (ACR, 1983, B350)

Cf. Webb, Raymond Porter. "Central African Republic." In Africa Contemporary Record Volume 22, 1989-1990, ed. Marion E. Doro and Colin Legum. New York and London: Africana Publishing Company, 1991.

AFRICA E-JOURNAL Cf. AFRICAACTION.org & GLOBALWITNESS.org
The Africa Policy E-Journal is a free information service provided by Africa Action, including both original commentary and reposted documents. Africa Action provides this information and analysis in order to promote U.S. and international policies toward Africa that advance economic, political and social justice and the full spectrum of human rights. Documents previously distributed in the e-journal are available on the Africa Action website: http://www.africaaction.org
For more about Africa E-Journal: http://www.africaaction.org/resources/ejournal.php
To support Africa Action: http://www.africaaction.org/support/
To be added to or dropped from the e-journal subscription list, write to e-journal@africaaction.org.
Cf. Dietrich.

AFRICA ENERGY FORUM 2005 Cf. NDOUTINGAI

Mr Ndoutingaï was born May 24, 1972 in the Northern province of the Central African Republic. After passing his baccalaureat in 1992 he studied Business Management at the University Institute of Bangui where he obtained his management degree in 1996. In 1998 he integrated and obtained the diploma from the Ecole Nationale des Officiers d'Active, ENOA (Military Academy) of Thiès (Senegal). He also graduated as a Barrister in International Civil Rights in April 2000 Senegal. From 2001 to 2002 he joined the Ecole Militaire d'Administration (Military Academy for Civil Service) in Koulikoro (Mali) where he graduated as an Officer. He also holds a diploma in IT. His military career includes: Commander of the Première Compagnie de Combat au Bataillon D'infanterie Territoriale (BIT EX-RDOT) from September 2000 to 2001. Deputy Officer of the Compagnie de Formation Elementaire des Techniques toutes Armes from June to September 2001. Sports Officer of the BIT and Base Commander of the BIT, 18 to 30 March 2001. (Africa Energy Forum 2005, Barcelona, World Trade Centre, 22-24 June 2005,
www.energynet.co.uk/aef/AEF2005/AEF05speakers.htm)

AFRICA ENERGY INTELLIGENCE

"CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC: Outlook Brightens for Grynberg."
General Francois Bozize's putsch in Bangui had no impact on the operations of Grynberg Petroleum which controls a 13.7 million acre concession in the Doseo and Salamat basins through its affiliate RSM. (...). (Africa Energy Intelligence, no. 343 - 02/04/2003.)

AFRICA INLAND MISSION (AIM)
AIM page: http://www.aim-us.org/ Cf.
Note: The Africa Inland Mission (AIM) was founded in Philadelphia in 1895 by Peter Cameron Scott from Great Britain, who immigrated with his parents to the United States. AIM missionaries arrived in southeastern Ubangi-Shari in 1924. AIM's objective was to evangelize "the darkest spot in Africa's continent of darkness" and reached "untouched tribes [with] unreduced languages." ("Editorial: The Africa Inland Mission." Inland Africa, 11, 1 (1927):9, as cited in Grootaers, "A History," pp. 189-190).
Cf. Inland Africa, AIM's journal.
Information on AIM, a missionary organization with over 850 missionaries in 15 African countries. Has a link to the web page of their school in Kenya, the Rift Valley Academy. There is more information provided by the Billy Graham Archives which hold the records of AIM including a history and detailed inventory of AIM's records. They were especially active in Kenya, Zaire, Uganda, Tanzania, Sudan, and the Central African Republic. Use the Graham Archives Search to locate additional collections.
AIM Archives: http://www.wheaton.edu/bgc/archives/GUIDES/081.htm

Richardson, Kenneth. Garden of Miracles: A History of the Africa Inland Mission. London: Victory Press, 1968. Cf. p. 209.

AFRICAN INLAND MISSION ARCHIVES
www.wheaton.edu/bgc/archives/GUIDES/081.htm#3
Note:
Cf. Central African Republic (folders 31-21, 32-14): Description of travel of missionaries to and from Sudan; effect on the mission of independence of CAR from France in 1961; questions about the AIM's medical policy and method of starting new hospitals, 1971 goals for the training of nationals, report by Dr. Joyce Nsubuga on medical care at Zemio station, strategy for dealing with sleeping sickness at Zemio. Field director John Linquist is a frequent correspondent. Folder 31-21 has some very early minutes of the joint Congo, Uganda and French Equatorial Africa field council.

Cf. "Historical Background."

Historical Background
Africa Inland Mission (AIM) had its beginning in the work of Peter Cameron Scott (1867-1896), a Scottish-American missionary of the International Missionary Alliance who served two years in the Congo before he was sent to Scotland in 1892 because of a near-fatal illness. While recuperating, he developed his idea of establishing a network of mission stations which would stretch from the southeast coast of the continent to the interior area known as the Sudan, which had never been evangelized by Christians. He was unable to interest any denomination in this idea (including his own Presbyterian Church), but he was able to interest several of his friends in Philadelphia in the work and in subscribing some funds. This group formed itself in 1895 into the Philadelphia Missionary Council.
Scott quickly recruited several men and women who were willing to return with him to Africa to start work. The emphasis on accepting these and other early recruits was on their Christian commitment and personal uprightness rather than on any special training. The mission was to be composed of the workers in the field and would be entirely self-governing and independent of the Philadelphia Missionary Council. The Council, headed by Rev. Charles Hurlburt, agreed ". . . to spread the knowledge of the work and forward means and workers as God may supply them. They are under no pledge to the mission to supply these, but merely forward them as supplied," as an article in one of the first issues of the Council's publication, Hearing and Doing, stated. The mission was Protestant nondenominational. It would be a faith mission in the sense that it would not advertise its need, but would depend on God to provide support. As Scott briefly put it, "As to the work, full information, as to funds, non-solicitation." Hurlburt was also president of the Pennsylvania Bible Institute, which provided most of the mission's workers in its very early years.
On August 17, 1895, AIM's first mission party set off. The group consisted of Scott, his sister Margaret, Frederick W. Krieger, Willis Hotchkiss, Minnie Lindberg, Miss Reckling and Lester Severn. Walter M. Wilson joined the party in Scotland. They arrived off the east African coast in October and Peter Scott started making arrangements in the Kenyan seaport of Mombassa. In little over a year, the mission had four stations--at Nzawi, Sakai, Kilungu, and Kangundo, all in Kenya. More workers came from America, including Scott's parents, and the small group expanded to fifteen.
In December 1896, Peter Scott died, partly because of the extremely hard pace at which he had been driving himself. The mission almost dissolved in the next year when most of the workers either died or resigned. The Council began to take more responsibility for the work and appointed Hurlburt director of the mission. After a survey trip to Africa, he returned to that continent to work and he eventually brought his entire family over. For the next two decades, he provided strong, if not undisputed, leadership for the headquarters, established in 1903 at Kijabe, Kenya.
From Kenya, the mission expanded its work to neighboring areas. In 1909, a station was set up in what was then German East Africa and later became Tanganyika, and still later, Tanzania. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt intervened for his friend Hurlburt to persuade the Belgian government to permit the mission to establish a station in the Congo, now called Zaire. Work was begun in Uganda in 1918; in French Equatorial Africa (Central African Republic) in 1924; Sudan, briefly, in 1949; and the Comoro Islands in 1975. Besides evangelization, workers of the mission ran clinics, hospitals, leprosariums, schools, publishing operations, and radio programs. Rift Academy was built at Kijabe for missionary children. Scott Theological College in Kenya helped train African Church leaders. The churches founded by the mission in each of its fields were eventually formed into branches of the Africa Inland Church which, however, continued to work closely with the mission.
The government of the mission changed greatly over the years. The Philadelphia Missionary Council dropped its other interests and reorganized itself as the home council of AIM. Hearing and Doing (later Inland Africa) became the mission's official publication. Committees were formed around the country to take the responsibility for interviewing candidates and forwarding support from their particular area. Support for the mission in Great Britain caused a British Home Council to be organized in 1906. Later, similar councils or committees were formed for France, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Canada, Holland, and the European continent as a whole.
In Africa, the workers in each field eventually formed their own field council, with a field director, which was responsible for the work in that area. Among the areas that formed field councils were Kenya, Congo (Zaire), Uganda, Tanzania, French Equatorial Africa (Central African Republic), and the Sudan. While Hurlburt was General Director or General Secretary, he was in practice the actual head of the mission. After his retirement in 1927, the North American Home Council began to exercise the authority it had in theory and was the head of the mission for many years, with its general secretary as the executive head. This caused complaints from other councils. In particular, missionaries in the field felt that many important decisions were made with insufficient information about African conditions. ("Historical Background," www.wheaton.edu/bgc/archives/GUIDES/081.htm#3)

AFRICAN INLAND MISSION INTERNATIONAL
www.aim-us.org P.O. Box 178, Pearl River, New York, 10965, Tel. 1-800-254-0010
www.aim-us.org/about_AIM/history/history.asp

Africa Inland Mission (AIM) was founded in 1895 by Peter Cameron Scott, a young man whose goal was to bring the Gospel of Jesus Christ inland from the coast of Kenya on Africa’s eastern shore all the way to Chad in central Africa. Scott and several of the original seven-member team died shortly after arriving in Africa, and others left because of poor health. After three years only one member remained. (www.aim-us.org/about_AIM/history/history.asp)


AFRICA INLAND MISSION INTERNATIONAL - COLLECTION 81
www.wheaton.edu/bgc/archives/GUIDES/081.htm#5r
Note: AIM archives at Billy Graham Center Archives (see website above)
Cf. Ward, Kevin. "Evangelism or education?: Mission priorities and educational policy in the Africa Inland Mission." University of Nairobi, Department of History, 1984.


AFRICA NUMBER ONE RADIO Cf. GABON

Cf. "Opposition to return to parliament." IRIN, 10 March 1998.
NAIROBI, 10 Mar 1998 (IRIN) - Opposition legislators who walked out of the National Assembly in January have decided to return to their parliamentary seats, bringing the country’s political impasse close to an end, Africa Number One radio said on Sunday. The opposition members had left the 109-seat Assembly to protest the defection of one of their legislators to the ruling party coalition following his election in the UN-supervised November/December 1998 polls. The defection had given President Ange Felix Patasse’s Mouvance Presidentielle a majority in the parliament. “The boycott has never been an absolute rule,” the radio, monitored by the BBC, quoted one opposition leader as saying.

Cf. "Skirmishes leave several dead in Bangui." IRIN, 25 June 1999.
NAIROBI, 25 Jun 1999 (IRIN) - Several Chadian herdsmen were killed during skirmishes with CAR soldiers in the capital Bangui last weekend, a diplomatic source in the city told IRIN on Friday. The clashes began when a small “misunderstanding” between the herdsmen and a group of Bangui residents attracted soldiers to the scene, the source said. One of the soldiers shot and killed a herdsmen, prompting further confrontation. “About four or five Chadians were killed there,” the diplomat said. Following the incident, President Ange-Felix Patasse apologised “on behalf of the CAR to the sister Republic of Chad,” adding that “relations between the CAR and Chad are indestructible,” Gabonese Africa No 1 Radio reported.

AFRICA POLICY E-JOURNAL Cf. AFRICA ACTION
The Africa Policy E-Journal is a free information service provided by Africa Action, including both original commentary and reposted documents. Africa Action provides this information and analysis in order to promote U.S. and international policies toward Africa that advance economic, political and social justice and the full spectrum of human rights. Documents previously distributed in the e-journal are available on the Africa Action website: http://www.africaaction.org
For additional background on this e-journal go to: http://www.africaaction.org/resources/ejournal.php
To support Africa Action with your contribution go to: http://www.africaaction.org/support/
To be added to or dropped from the e-journal subscription list, write to e-journal@africaaction.org. For more information about reposted material, please contact directly the source mentioned in the posting.
Cf. Dietrich, Christian.

AFRICA RESEARCH BULLETIN
Note: Africa Research Bulletin, formerly published monthly in London, collected and published articles or radio news about Africa from sources all over the world.

Cf. "Diplomatic Relations Between African States: Cameroon - Central African Republic." Radio Libreville, 30 July 1966?: "Cameroon is planning to establish a diplomatic mission in Libreville. The Ambassador will have his residence in Bangui."

Cf. "M. Jean Bikanda, Cameroon's Ambassador to the Central African Republic and the Congo Republic, has, in addition, been accredited to Gabon. This is the first Ambassador which Cameroon has had in this country." Le Moniteur African du Commerce et de l'Industrie, 10 October 1966?, cited in ARB, 1966.

AFRICA SOUTH OF THE SAHARA

Africa South of the Sahara: index to periodical literature, 1900-1970. Vol. 2, Central African Republic - Ivory Coast. Boston, Mass., 1971.

AFRICAN COMMISSION ON HUMAN AND PEOPLES' RIGHTS

African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights. Prisons in the Central African Republic: report on a visit, June 19-29, 2000. by E.V.O. Dankwa. Banjul, Gambia: African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights; Paris: Penal Reform International, 2001. 42 p. 21 cm.

AFRICAN DEMOCRATIC UNION Cf. RASSEMBLEMENT DÉMOCRATIQUE AFRICAIN, RDA,

African communists who attended the Bamako conference in October 1946 established a new political party, the Rassemblement democratique africain (RDA), or African Democratic Union, which was an alliance of parties formed in many different colonies. Felix Houphouët-Boigny of the Ivory Coast was the leading figure of this party and served as a deputy, alongside Boganda, in the French National Assembly (Wilson, African Decolonization, 147).
The key issue for all the allied parties of the African Democratic Union was the desire to eliminate the distinction between French “citizens” and colonial “subjects” and to extend the franchise to all adult Africans. They were opposed to the new Constitution, according to which all French adults had the franchise and could vote as members of the first college, but only a very select group of non-citizen colonial subjects could vote as members of the second college.

AFRICA ENERGY INTELLIGENCE

Africa Energy Intelligence, "Central African Republic: Outlook Brightens for Grynberg." Africa Energy Intelligence, 343 (2-15 April 2003):4.

AFRICA RESEARCH LTD.

Africa Research Ltd., "Sugar: Central African Republic." African Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial, and Technical Series, Vol. 20, no. 7 (15 July - 14 August 1983):??

AFRICANMSSIONS.org

"Non-Anglophone Subsaharan Africa, 1989." africamissions.org/africa/humansuf.htm -

"Countries in Africa with highest degree of human suffering." africamissions.org/africa/humansuf.htm -

AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK Cf. BOUYGUES DRAGAGES CAMEROUN COFFEE, HOSPITAL, EC, WORLD BANK

Coffee production appears to have recovered from 11,400 tons in 1986 to 15,000 tons in 1987. This partly reflects the end of the three year recovery cycle after the serious drought in 1983. With the support of the World Bank, the African Development Bank, the EC and France since 1986, the government is promoting coffee growing among smallholders rather than the traditional plantations (EIU Country Report, "Central African Republic," 1st Quarter 1988, p. 21)

French businessmen complain that payment delays are making it difficult to continue with certain project contracts. In June [1989] Bouygues Dragages Cameroun, an affiliate of the large French construction group, had still received no payments from the government for work begun on Bangui hospital in September 1998. The problem is that the African Development Bank (ADB) is only paying 75 per cent of the hospital's cost, and the government has to find the balance. (EIU Country Report, "Central African Republic," 4th Quarter 1989, p. 23)

AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FUND cf. REDUNDANCY PROGRAM

The civil service minister, Daniel Sehoulia, has costed the programme to reduce the number of government employees by 2,000 at CFAfr5.8 bn. This seems to consist largely of the redundancy payments: under the voluntary departure programme staff leaving are each entitled to 40 months's salary. The average official salary is CFAfr50,000 per month and Mr Sehoulia indicated that by mid-November [1989] some 300 people had benefitted from this scheme, with a further 300 about to join them. Yet there are still more hitches. On November 28 there was a public demonstration by more than 500 officials who were being made redundant while already suffering from salary arrears. The basic problem was that the government had run out of funds to meet the redundancy payments, but the African Development Bank has now advanced the necessary money and the programme has resumed...(EIU Country Report, "Central African Republic," 1st Quarter 1990, p. 27)

AFRICAN DIAMONDS PLC
www.afdiamonds.com/_operations/alluvial_project.shtml
African Diamonds PLC, 162 Clontarf Road, Dublin 3, Ireland
Tel: 353-1-833-2833 Fax: 353-1-833-3503 Email: info@afdiamonds.com

Prior to the 6th century BC India was the only known source of diamonds. All but one of the producers were alluvial. Rare mention was made of diamonds in the early years of the Roman Empire but they effectively disappeared for 1000 years. From the 11th century onward references were made to diamonds from the East but it was only in the 13th century that kings, queens and nobles begin to acquire diamond jewelry. The discovery by the Portuguese of a direct route between India and Europe saw a major increase in the market in the early 1600's. The East India Company of London bought diamonds in Borneo and India and auctioned them in London. The discovery of diamonds in Brazil in 1730 broke the Indian monopoly. For 100 years Brazil was the major supplier to Europe. As with India, diamonds were found in alluvial deposits along the banks of rivers.
In 1869 diamonds were first discovered in South Africa. Less than 20 years later Cecil Rhodes consolidated South African producers into De Beers - thus began the greatest cartel in history. For over 100 years De Beers controlled the world diamond industry. Even today the company controls 65% of world production. South Africa rapidly became the center of world diamonds. Though alluvial diamonds were significant it was the discovery of diamonds in rock that changed the world. The rock was named "kimberlite" after the area in which it was first discovered. Five mines in the Kimberley area produced fabulous wealth, four continue to produce.
Throughout the 20th century new hard rock mines were discovered in South Africa - the Premier, the Finch and the Venetia to name but three. For over 130 years South Africa has remained in the top 4 producers worldwide. In 1908 alluvial diamonds were discovered in Namibia - a desert land. By following a long dried up river bed vast wealth was discovered on the beaches and more recently in the sea. Namibia's diamond production is mainly gemstone quality.
Angola was the next African country to discover alluvial diamonds in 1912. Over a period of 60 years production grew until Angola became the 6th largest producer. Civil war has devastated the area but with 600 known kimberlite pipes waiting to be explored there is vast potential. In 1913 alluvial diamonds were discovered in the Congo. Rapid expansion took place and for decades the Congo was the worlds largest producer of mainly industrial diamonds. The deposit at MIBA is one of the world's most prolific mines producing 6m carats in 2000. Political strife and instability for over 40 years have greatly weakened the industry but significant potential exists.

Major production is now dominated by Botswana, Australia, Russia, and Congo Republic (Zaire), but South Africa is still a major producer, in both volume and value.
In the early 1960's diamonds were discovered in Botswana. Today Botswana is the worlds leading producer by value from four outstanding mines Orapa, Letlhakane, Jwaneng and Damtshaa. These mines hold reserves for 100 years.
Systematic exploration in Russia began in the 1940's and within 10 years one of the world's greatest discoveries was made, the Mir and Udachaya pipes. Russia is the 4th largest producer in the world mainly from Udachaya which produced 12 million carats in 2001. There are over 1000 known kimberlite pipes in Russia.
In 1976 the first kimberlite pipe was discovered in Australia but it was only in 1979 that the Argyle mine, now the worlds largest was found. This discovery has revolutionized diamond geology because it was found in lamproites not kimberlite and it was found in a younger aged rock. The diamonds from Argyle are small and coloured with only 5% of gemstone quality.
Diamond exploration began in Canada in the late 1970's but it was not until 1990 that the Ekati kimberlite was found under a lake. The Ekati mine opened in 1998. The prospecting rush, which followed the first discovery, has led to three other economic discoveries Diavek, Snap Lake and Jerecho. The Canadian discoveries are significant because two are being developed by the world's largest mining companies, Billiton/BHP and Rio Tinto. These companies are larger than De Beers and will do their own marketing. The third discovery, Snap Lake, is a De Beers project. It is thought that Canada will be one of the world's largest diamond producers by volume and value within 8 years.
Other countries have small diamond operations but one Sierra Leone has vast potential. Civil conflict for 30 years has destroyed much of the country. Prior to war Sierra Leone produced very high quality gemstone diamonds mainly alluvial. It is believed that significant potential exists to expand production. (www.afdiamonds.com/_diamondMining/history.shtml)
Why Africa for Diamonds?
Africa is the richest continent for diamond mining. The major sources are in the south with lesser concentrations in the west-central part of the continent. The major producing countries are Congo Republic (Zaire), Botswana, South Africa, Angola, Namibia, Ghana, Central African Republic, Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Zimbabwe. Political turmoil in some countries has led to highly variable production and severe degradation of the environment from uncontrolled mining. The best place to look for diamonds is were there has been diamonds found before.
(www.afdiamonds.com/_diamondMining/history.shtml)
THE DIAMOND INDUSTRY
At minesite the world diamond industry is worth $10 billion. By the time the stones become jewelry the industry is worth $60 billion.
The structure of the industry is:
Exploration -> Mining -> Sorting -> Polishing -> Retailing
Exploration
In the wilds of Africa, Russia, Canada and Australia prospectors look for "footprints" or "indicators". Footprints are outcrops in rocks or changed shapes, which may indicate the presence of kimberlite or lamproite. However, it is more common that explorers search riverbeds past and present for minerals such as garnets, which indicate that diamonds may be there. The reason for this is simple. Diamonds are ancient, more than 100 million years old. The rock in which they are contained has weathered and eroded. This results in diamonds being washed along rivers and streams even into the ocean. Exploration methods depend on whether alluvial or hard rock deposits are being sought. Alluvial deposits are sampled by taking systematic bulk samples of material and assaying the samples for diamonds. Hardrock exploration of pipes involves drilling, sampling and drilling.
Hard Rock Mining
The unique feature of diamond mining is that the economics depend on finding individual stones. One large gemstone can make a mine viable for years. Most hard rock diamond mining is open-cast. Basically a conical pit is dug by blasting the rock and removing it with mechanical shovels and trucks. The steeply dipping pit may go to depths of 1000 feet. When the pit becomes too deep underground mining takes over. Once the rock is mined it must be crushed and sorted.
Orapa open pit mine - Botswana
Crushing is a critical operation as large diamonds can be destroyed in the process. Once crushed the ore is concentrated in a centrifuge type operation, which forces the diamonds to the bottom of a container. It is estimated that on average 0.001 percent of the original ore makes it to the bottom. Sorting then separates the diamonds from the rest of the concentrate. Many mines use a "Grease Belt". Diamonds stick to grease while other minerals do not. More modern mines use an X-Ray beam. Diamonds emit light when hit by an X-Ray. When the X-Ray hits a diamond a jet of air blasts the stone into a box.
Alluvial Mining
This is a simple process - remove the overburden, dig the gravels and extract the stones. The gravels are sieved into different sizes after which they are sorted by hand on tables. Bigger operations use mechanical equipment and grease tables. Recent developments have dredges working on rivers. They suck up the gravels from the riverbed, sort on board and return the waste to the river.
Alluvial Mining
Marine Deposits
One of the greatest sources of gemstones in the world is the coast of Namibia. Diamonds were washed along long dead rivers across Africa into the Atlantic. Over the past 40 years vast quantities of gemstones have been recovered from the beaches and now the seas of Namibia. Recovery methods are similar to alluvial mining but involve huge tonnages and high-tech equipment, particularly the ships operating offshore.
Sorting
This involves categorizing the diamonds into: Gemstones, Near Gemstones, Industrial Diamonds. At this stage diamonds are known as "Rough". 80% of all diamonds are industrial with 20% being of gemstone quality. Stones are sorted by:
Sizes Sizes Shapes Stones Colours Water Clear
Smalls Shapes Fancy
Sands Flats Muddy
Macles
These classifications establish a price for the Rough Diamonds. Until 2001 there was a cartel run by De Beers, which controlled 80% of all of the world's diamonds. De Beers held 10 "sights" a year to which selected buyers were invited. They were offered packages of assorted rough diamonds, which they bid on. If the buyers did not purchase they were excluded from future sights. Over 50% of all rough diamonds continue to be sold through De Beers. The marketing of rough diamonds has changed radically with De Beers abandoning the cartel and new companies now marketing their output directly. The objective of the cartel was to control the price of rough diamonds. This it did for 100 years.
Polishing/Cutting
Polishing/Cutting is what makes a diamond. Cutting began in the 13th century with the creation of a Point Cut, which was a polished flat eight-sided surface. Later the Table Cut appeared which was a flat surface, which greatly increased the amount of light returned to the eye. Later came the Rose Cut a flat bottom and a triangular faceted crown. The Brilliant cut was created in the 19th century by adding further facets to the Table Cut. These have now evolved into the Round Brilliant Cut which has many facets. This is based on a mathematical model to maximize light reflection and dispersion. Diamonds dictate how they should be cut. Cuts conceal flaws and maximize brilliance. Beginning in the 13th Century in Antwerp cutting skills have developed across the world with centers in New York, Antwerp, Tel Aviv and India. India has over 800,000 cutters preparing 80% of the world's gemstones by volume (50% by value).
Retailing
"A Diamond is forever". This slogan developed by De Beers in the 1960's is regarded as the best marketing slogan for the 20th century. It has become the foundation for the entire industry. It was only after the 2nd World War that attention was given to expanding the market for diamonds. With growing wealth in Western countries and Japan diamond jewelery became affordable to the masses in particular it became a symbol of love. Countries such as Japan where diamond giving was unknown has become a major market. Now China and India are been targeted. It is likely that retailing will play a more significant role in the diamond industry in future. The cracks, which have appeared in the diamond cartel, can only increase. De Beers have taken the lead in attempting to brand a diamonds. There is no doubt that in coming years more attention will be paid to marketing and branding. The value of diamonds more than double between the polishing room and the consumer.
(www.afdiamonds.com/_diamondMining/history.shtml)

AFRICAN HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION cf. COMITÉ INTERNATIONAL POUR LE RESPECT ET L'APPLICATION DES DROITS DE L'HOMME. CIRAC, MASSENGO-TIASSE

1990
...in January [1990]...the CAR hosted a conference of human rights in the rural milieu. The meeting was organised jointly by the government and the Comité International pour le Respect et l'Application des Droits de l'Homme (Cirac). It was also attended by the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (Unesco), the World Health Organisation (WHO), the African Human Rights Commission (AHRC) and several non-governmental organisations. (EIU Country Report, "Central African Republic," 2nd Quarter 1990, p. 25)

AFRICAN PROGRAMME FOR ONCHOCERCIASIS CONTROL (APOC)
www.apoc.bf
Note: the C.A.R. is a APOC member state;
Executing Agency: World Health Organization; Fiscal Agency: World Bank

River Blindness is the common name for Onchocerciasis, a devastating disease found predominantly in Africa but also occuring in Central America and small pockets of the Middle East. In 1974, international community efforts to join forces in a concerted effort to tackle onchocerciasis resulted in the establishment of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP). The programme’s objectives were to eliminate the disease and thereby improve socioeconomic conditions for the millions of people living in the 11 nations covered by OCP activities, and leave the countries concerned in a position to ensure that the disease never returned to threaten their populations. Programme OCP closed its activities on 31 December 2002. APOC was formed in December 1995 with the sole aim of eliminating onchocerciasis from African countries where the disease remained endemic. Building on the success of the OCP and extending into 19 nations which were not previously covered. Unfortunately, in these countries, environmental conditions are such that widespread aerial spraying of breeding sites of the vector flies is not a viable option. Instead, control is accomplished through the targeted distribution of ivermectin tablets to all affected communities. ("African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC)," 25 October 2005, www.apoc.bf/en/index.htm)

AFRICAN UNION

Source: Agence France-Presse (AFP) Date: 29 Dec 2005
Central Africa Republic seeks AU military support to fight rampaging bandits
ADDIS ABABA, Dec 29 (AFP) - Beset by bands of marauding bandits and rebel groups from nearly all of its neighbors, the impoverished Central African Republic (CAR) on Thursday asked the African Union for military assistance to help it combat lawlessness and instability. In an appeal to the AU Peace and Security Council, CAR Foreign Minister Laurent Ngoh Baba requested an unspecified amount of military hardware, including helicopters, other transport, communications equipment and logistical supplies, from the pan-African body.
"We have been fighting alone for the past 10 years and we need material support for our army from the African Union and the member states individually so that we can fight the bandits who are attacking our transport system and our social fabric by coming out of the bush from neighboring countries," he said.
Speaking to reporters after the council met at AU headquarters in Addis Ababa to consider the security situation in the CAR, Baba stressed that Bangui was not accusing its neighbors of supporting the criminals but simply needed their support in battling the scourge. But he did not detail Bangui's exact needs or offer a timetable for when he hoped the potential military support would be provided. The council was expected to issue a statement concerning the CAR request later Thursday or Friday, AU officials said. Baba did, however, say that existing efforts to rein in bandits, particularly in the north of the country where a 380-strong central African regional force is attempting to stabilize the security situation, had to be supplemented. Fear of the marauders there -- where they strike nearly every day holding up travellers, stealing livestock, and kidnapping children -- has driven some 15,000 inhabitants of the remote region into neighboring Chad, disrupting crop production and raising the risk of a food shortage.
The problem has become especially acute since elections in the spring returned President Francois Bozize to power and security, which had been tight for the polls, was reduced.
abf/mvl/afm AFP. Copyright (c) 2005 Agence France-Presse. Received by NewsEdge Insight: 12/29/2005 10:23:32

AFRICARE

Wesneat, Boyer and Lentz. "Etudes des marchés de Bangui: rapport final." Projet de Développement des Entreprises Rurales. Bangui: A.F.R.I.C.A.R.E., 1991.

AFRIQUE CENTRALE
www.afriquecentrale.info/fr/news/newsList.asp?rubID=1&srubID=4&themeID=1

Cf. "Jours sombres pour les 'coupeurs de route'." Afrique Centrale, 11 May 2005:
Le ministère centrafricain de la Défense a annoncé samedi que ses troupes avaient enregistré ces derniers jours de "brillants succès" dans la lutte engagée contre les "coupeurs de route", ces bandits de grand chemin qui sèment le désordre dans le nord du pays. Le 26 octobre, des éléments des Forces armées centrafricaines (Faca) ont ainsi découvert un camp de "coupeurs de route" ou "Zaraguinas", "récupérant des armes et des vivres abandonnés par les brigands", a affirmé le ministère dans un communiqué lu à la radio nationale.
www.afriquecentrale.info/fr/news/news.asp?rubID=1&srubID=4&themeID=1&newsID=3143

"Chèque français de 2,7 milliards de CFA." Afrique Centrale, 11 March 2005:
La France a accordé à la Centrafrique une aide budgétaire exceptionnelle de près de 2,7 milliards de francs CFA (4,1 millions d’euros) destinée pour l’essentiel à contribuer au paiement des salaires des fonctionnaires du pays, a annoncé jeudi la radio nationale. La convention signée par les deux pays prévoit que 1,7 milliard de F CFA (2,5 millions d’euros) seront affectés au paiement des salaires des quelque 20.000 agents de l’Etat centrafricain, dont la quasi-totalité n’a reçu que deux mois de salaires depuis le début de l’année 2005.
www.afriquecentrale.info/fr/news/news.asp?rubID=1&srubID=4&themeID=1&newsID=3143

"Diamant: nouvelle règlementation pour lutter contre la fraude." Afrique Centrale, 11 February 2005:
Le gouvernement centrafricain a annoncé mercredi avoir imposé aux bureaux d'achats de diamants chargés de la vente à l'étranger des montants minimaux mensuels d'exportation, afin de lutter contre la fraude qui sévit dans le secteur minier. Selon un arrêté du ministre des Mines, Sylvain Ndoutingaï, "les bureaux d'achat ayant moins de cinq années d'activités consécutives" devront exporter chaque mois des diamants pour une valeur minimale d'un million de dollars. "Une vérification trimestrielle" sera réalisée, précise l'arrêté. En cas de non respect des minima fixés, "il sera appliqué, en plus de la taxe à l'exportation, une pénalité de 1O% sur la totalité de la valeur légale d'exportation".
D'autres sanctions sont prévues, allant jusqu'au "retrait immédiat" de l'agrément du bureau d'achat et à d'éventuelles "poursuites judiciaires".
Cet arrêté "vise surtout à minimiser la fraude minière entretenue par les bureaux d'achat", qui ne déclarent pas la totalité de leurs exportations de diamants, a-t-on expliqué à l'AFP de source proche du dossier au ministère des Mines.
Selon les experts, au moins un million de carats de diamants sont exportés chaque année par la Centrafrique, mais seulement la moitié, 500.000 carats, sont officiellement déclarés aux autorités centrafricaines.
Sur avis des institutions financières internationales, la Centrafrique s'est dotée en 2004 d'un nouveau Code minier, afin de lutter contre la fraude, mais toutes ses dispositions n'ont pas encore été appliquées. L'arrêté annoncé mercredi a été pris conformément à ce nouveau code. ("Diamant: nouvelle règlementation pour lutter contre la fraude." Afrique Centrale, 11 February 2005, www.afriquecentrale.info/fr/news/news.asp?rubID=1&srubID=4&themeID=1&newsID=3143)

AFRIQUE CONTEMPORAIRE

Cf. "La constitution de la République Centrafricaine." Afrique Contemporaire (Paris), 175 (1995):61-79.

AFRIQUE-EXPRESS
www.afrique-express.com/archive/CENTRALE/rca/rcapol/235demafouth.htm

"Démafouth soupçonné de complot avec M. Bemba."
C'est une petite cassette qui est actuellement l'objet de toutes les spéculations en Centrafrique. Sur cette cassette, l'enregistrement d'une conversation téléphonique, réalisé le 26 juillet, au cours de laquelle l'ex-ministre centrafricain de la Défense, Jean-Jacques Démafouth, demande une aide militaire à une personne se présentant comme Jean-Pierre Bemba, chef du Mouvement pour la libération du Congo (MLC). La personne (Bemba ?) refuse d'accéder à cette demande, la jugeant trop risquée. La seule certitude que peuvent avoir les rares personnes à avoir auditionner cet enregistrement c'est qu'il s'agit à peu près sûrement de la voix des deux intéressés. Le reste ? Manipulation ou non de l'enregistrement, c'est une autre histoire. Forte de cette "preuve", la justice centrafricaine accuse donc explicitement Jean-Jacques Démafouth d'avoir tenté de comploter avec le chef rebelle congolais Jean-Pierre Bemba pour prendre le pouvoir. Alors que Jean-Pierre Bemba avait envoyé au mois de mai dernier ces hommes pour soutenir le président Patassé menacé par la tentative de putsch fomenté par l'ex-général André Kolingba, Jean-Pierre Bemba aurait-il changé son fusil d'épaule deux mois après? Une hypothèse tout à fait plausible si l'on considère les liens affairistes qui unissaient Démafouth et Bemba, ce dernier écoulant par Bangui diverses productions des territoires sous son contrôle. Autre facteur qui plaiderait pour une entente Bemba-Démafouth, le fait qu'une partie importante des troupes de Jean-Pierre Bemba soit composée de ressortissant Ngandi, c'est à dire les "Yakomas" qui se trouvent de l'autre côté du fleuve Oubangui en territoire congolais. Ces derniers auraient très mal apprécié le coup de pouce donné au président Patassé en mai dernier, qui a fait échoué la tentative de coup d'Etat du Yakoma André Kolingba.
On s'étonne aussi à Bangui du fait que l'épouse de Kolingba qui était "réfugiée" à l'ambassade de France à Bangui ait pu s'évader le 25 août en traversant le fleuve Oubangui, pour rejoindre la ville de Zongo sous contrôle des forces de Jean-Pierre Bemba. Il a bien fallu que tout un réseau se mette en place des deux côté du fleuve pour faciliter cette évasion rocambolesque. Jean-Pierre Bemba aurait même selon certaines sources faciliter le transport de Mireille Kolingba jusqu'en Ouganda en passant par son quartier général, à Gbadolite. Quant à Démafouth, au premières heures du coup d'Etat raté de Kolingba, certains n'ont pas hésité à lui attribuer la paternité du meurtre du commandant de la gendarmerie nationale, le général François Ndjadder Bedaya, mort en défendant la résidence de M. Patassé, dont il était l'un des plus fidèles. François Ndjadder vouait depuis un certain une solide inimitié à Démafouth et au général Bozize, actuel chef d'état-major des FACA, qu'ils soupçonnait (déjà) de comploter contre le président Patassé.
Depuis l'arrestation du ministre Démafouth, les militaires centrafricains ont été consignés préventivement dans les casernes, sur ordre du chef d'état major des armées, le général de division François Bozize. Après les décès, lors des événements, du directeur général de la gendarmerie, le général François Ndjadder, et du chef d'état-major de l'armée de Terre, le colonel Abel Abrou, M. Bozize apparaît comme le seul et incontournable patron des Forces armées centrafricaines (FACA). Dans ce contexte pesant de méfiance et de soupçon, le président Patassé, dont la protection rapprochée est assurée par des soldats libyens et la garde présidentielle, ne quitte que rarement sa résidence. Au point qu'à l'occasion du 32ème anniversaire de la révolution libyenne, le 30 août, il a préféré se faire représenter par son Premier ministre Martin Ziguélé auprès de son allié libyen.

AFRIQUE NOUVELLE
Note: published in Dakar.

Cf. "Central African Republic - Polygamy Abolished. Polygamy has been abolished in the Central African Republic as a result of measures taken by the Revolutionary Council on January 10th [1966]." Afrique Nouvelle, 20 November 1996, cited in Africa Research Bulletin, January 1-31, 1966, p. 456.

AFROL NEWS
www.afrol.com/articles/16874
afrol News 14 January - A new report exposes that the Central African may be a regional hub in the trade of illicit conflict diamonds from neighbouring Congo Kinshasa. Belgian imports declared as originating in the Central African Republic had surpassed the country's official exports by a factor of three over the past few years.
- At first glance, the Central African Republic presents a seemingly straightforward case study in diamonds, a new report by Partnership Africa-Canada notes. Despite numerous coup attempts since 1996, the country has not been considered a producer of conflict diamonds like Congo Kinshasa (DRC) and Angola. The country's total diamond production, estimated at about US$ 100 million per annum, is derived from a handful of towns along two veins of alluvial diamond deposits in eastern and western portions of the country. "The sheer volume of diamonds produced in Congo and Angola has overshadowed the importance of the Central African Republic's much smaller diamond economy," the report says.
Christian Dietrich, the author of the 8-pages analysis, during his visit in the country however uncovered statistical anomalies, suggesting the Central African Republic is being used to smuggle diamonds from rebel-held areas the Congo. Compared to the anarchy of the Congo's diamond economy, the Central African Republic is relatively well-regulated and transparent, the report says. "The government commands an impressive array of statistics concerning diamond production and trading."
- Beneath this first level of scrutiny, however, a more detailed examination of the Central African Republic reveals a less optimistic picture, Mr Dietrich notes. The country's physical proximity to rebel territory in the Congo suggested that Bangui could serve as a conduit for conflict diamonds. Bangui, Bujumbura, Kampala and Kigali were "the most obvious routes for the exit of diamonds mined in rebel zones in eastern and northern Congo."
Although the Central African Republic has not intervened militarily in the Congolese war, Congolese rebel leader Jean-Pierre Bemba dispatched troops to Bangui during a coup attempt there in 2001. Mr Bemba intervened on behalf of the Central African government "because he could not tolerate a hostile regime in Bangui, Mr Dietrich notes. Bangui is separated from Mr Bemba's territory only by the width of the Ubangui River. Naturally, Mr Bemba was relying "heavily on the supply of commodities and materiel either through Kampala or Bangui, the latter being a much cheaper alternative for goods such as petrol."
Rebel leader Bemba has been able to finance his war against the Congolese government by controlling the sale of between one and three million dollars worth of diamonds a month. Mr Bemba signed a peace deal with the Kabila government in April 2002 but then refused to assume his position as interim Prime Minister in Kinshasa.
The diamond wealth controlled by Mr Bemba's Mouvement de libération du Congo (MLC) has contributed to his ability to keep fighting. The exact routes for commercialising these diamonds remain a mystery for the most part. Rumours persist that Mr Bemba sends his diamonds through South Africa directly, but there is more evidence that they pass initially through the Congo's neighbours before entering the international market. Bangui was noted as an obvious destination.
- Approximately US$ 50-60 million worth of diamonds mined in rebel territory in eastern and northern Congo 'disappear' into the global rough diamond pipeline every year, the report says.
Mr Dietrich holds it "possible that the Central African Republic is being used for laundering diamonds derived from Congolese rebels, or that Bangui is used as a primary transit zone." Belgian imports had declared as originating in the Central African Republic have surpassed the country's official exports by a factor of three over the past few years, with the exception of 2001 when they were only double official exports, the report found.
According to the report, there were two possible scenarios, or a mixture of them, that may explain the use of the Central African Republic for the laundering or transit of conflict diamonds, and the significant variation between Central African Republic's exports and Belgian imports. First, foreign companies not active in the Central African Republic could fraudulently declare the country as the provenance of their diamonds. Second, Central African diamond dealers could be involved in smuggling of illicit diamonds, which would be declared in Belgium with a Central African provenance.
- In each case there is fraud, tax evasion and possibly United Nations sanctions busting, the Canadian report establishes. The Central African Minister of Mines however rejects the possibility that Congolese diamonds are laundered through official circuits in the Central African Republic, basing his assumption on the difference between the average quality of Central African and Congolese diamonds.
Mr Dietrich concludes that, while there is no documented evidence that Central African dealers currently purchase conflict diamonds from the Congo, "anecdotal evidence suggests that this is a very real possibility." Such diamonds likely would however not be laundered through the Central African Republic's official exports, so as to evade government tax.
- It is more probable that they would be smuggled into and then out of Bangui, and only then declared in Belgium, Mr Dietrich says. "This problem may not seem to be the responsibility of the Central African government, but the use of Bangui as a transit point for conflict diamonds has severe repercussions for the country's diamond trade."
- If the government of the Central African Republic ignores good evidence that certain companies are dealing with rebel groups in the Congo, then it will be seen to be complicit in this trade, he warns. "Diamond dealers, whether licensed or not, using Bangui to deal with Congolese rebel groups will taint the Central African Republic's legitimate diamond economy."

AFROMIX.org
www.afromix.org/html/musique/pays/centrafrique/index.en.html
"Central African Republic."

AGBA (literature, folklore)

Agba, G. and G. Renou. Conte d'Afrique Central. Yaounde: Clé Intern, 1980.

AGBO
Joseph Agbo, Minister of Mines in 1998.

He [Charles Massi] was replaced in the Ministry of Mines by Joseph Agbo, who was also forced to resign after being accused of obstructing government legal proceedings against diamond exporters who had been accused of failing to pay sufficient tax. The pressure on Agbo had come from the CAR Prime Minister Michel Gbezera-Bria who had made public assertions of corruption in the diamond trade and who had gained donor confidence, as the EIU put it, "in his efforts to weaken the patronage links developed by Mr. Patassé in the public sector over recent years.

AGE

AGE DISTRIBUTION

1958 estimate Under 15 15-49 50+
African 438,100 639,500 60,900
Non-African 1,745 3,421 808
(Junod and Resnick, "The Central African Republic," p. 47-48)

AGENCE CENTRAFRICAINE DE DÉVELOPPEMENT DE L'OUHAM-PENDÉ

Institut des Geósciences Appliqués, Cartes Thematiques Établies par Teledetection pour le Développement Rural de l'Ouham-Pendé. Frankfurt am Main: Klaus Volger & Partner, 1979. Prepared for and distributed by ACADOP.

AGENCE DE COOPÉRATION CULTURELLE ET TECHNIQUE (A.C.C.T.)
Agence de coopération culturelle et technique, (A.C.C.T.), Paris
In 1959, the [French] government set up the Agency for Cultural and Technical Cooperation (Agence de Co-opération Culturelle et Technique, ACCT) to channel aid from wealther Francophone countries - primarily France, but also Canada and Belgium - to developing ones. The ACCT has provided funds and materials for education to countries where French is an official or a widely used language. (Aldrich, Greater France, p. 322).
http://www.francophonie.org/oif/historique.cfm

Cf. Ake Assi, L. et al., Contribution à l’identification et au recensement des plantes utilisées dans la médecine traditionnelle et la pharmacopée en République Centrafricaine. A.C.C.T., 1981. 139p. multigr.

Cf. Ake Assi, L. Contribution aux études ethno-botaniques et floristiques en RCA (A contribution to ethno-botanical and floristic studies in the CAR). Paris: ACCT, 1985. 139p.

AGENCE DE LA RÉPUBLIQUE CENTRAFRICAINE DE PRESSE

Agence de la République centrafricaine de presse. Bulletin hebdomadaire. Library of Congress has 5 May-17 Nov 1962.

AGENCE DU COOPÉRATION TECHNIQUE D'OUTRE-MER

Le Rapport de la recherche des minières dans la République du [sic] Centrafricaine. [Japan?]: Agence du coopération technique d'outre-mer, 1974. 35p. 30 cm.

AGENCE EUROPÉENE POUR LE DÉVELOPPEMENT ET LA SANTÉ Cf. UNION EUROPÉENE

Cf. Union européenne. "Appui au programme d'ajustement structurel" (projet no 7 ACP CA 029): assistance technique suivi de l'exécution budgétaire et réhabilitation de la chaine de la dépense: rapport de fin de mission, 3 juin 1994-31 août 1995. Prepared by Françoise André. Bruxelles: Agence européenne pour le développement et la santé, 1995. 30 cm.

AGENCE FRANÇAISE DE DÉVELOPPEMENT cf. AFD, CAISSE CENTRALE DE COOPÉRATION FRANÇAISE, CCCF,

the Caisse Centrale de Coopération Française, become the Agence Française de Développement. (M. MCN. "Centrafrique: Les Coups d'Etat Imaginaires Gâtent la Transition." Le Confident, 3 August 2004).


AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE
Note: A subscription is necessary, but Clarinet service clari.world.africa.western often carries AFP reports. Cf. http://www.afp.com/english/products/online/globeonline/

Source: Agence France-Presse (AFP) Date: 29 Dec 2005
Central Africa Republic seeks AU military support to fight rampaging bandits
ADDIS ABABA, Dec 29 (AFP) - Beset by bands of marauding bandits and rebel groups from nearly all of its neighbors, the impoverished Central African Republic (CAR) on Thursday asked the African Union for military assistance to help it combat lawlessness and instability. In an appeal to the AU Peace and Security Council, CAR Foreign Minister Laurent Ngoh Baba requested an unspecified amount of military hardware, including helicopters, other transport, communications equipment and logistical supplies, from the pan-African body.
"We have been fighting alone for the past 10 years and we need material support for our army from the African Union and the member states individually so that we can fight the bandits who are attacking our transport system and our social fabric by coming out of the bush from neighboring countries," he said.
Speaking to reporters after the council met at AU headquarters in Addis Ababa to consider the security situation in the CAR, Baba stressed that Bangui was not accusing its neighbors of supporting the criminals but simply needed their support in battling the scourge. But he did not detail Bangui's exact needs or offer a timetable for when he hoped the potential military support would be provided. The council was expected to issue a statement concerning the CAR request later Thursday or Friday, AU officials said. Baba did, however, say that existing efforts to rein in bandits, particularly in the north of the country where a 380-strong central African regional force is attempting to stabilize the security situation, had to be supplemented. Fear of the marauders there -- where they strike nearly every day holding up travellers, stealing livestock, and kidnapping children -- has driven some 15,000 inhabitants of the remote region into neighboring Chad, disrupting crop production and raising the risk of a food shortage.
The problem has become especially acute since elections in the spring returned President Francois Bozize to power and security, which had been tight for the polls, was reduced.
abf/mvl/afm AFP. Copyright (c) 2005 Agence France-Presse. Received by NewsEdge Insight: 12/29/2005 10:23:32

(14/08/2002, 19h38)
Abdoulaye Miskine blessé lors de l'attaque de Kabo (source centrafricaine)
N'DJAMENA, 14 août (AFP) - L'ancien rebelle tchadien Abdoulaye Miskine, aujourd'hui au service de l'armée centrafricaine, a été blessé lors de l'attaque de la ville de Kabo (nord de la Centrafrique), a indiqué mercredi à l'AFP une source centrafricaine basée à N'Djamena.

(13/08/2002, 20h23)
Nouvelle convocation de l'ambassadeur du Tchad en Centrafrique
BANGUI, 13 août (AFP) - L'ambassadeur du Tchad en Centrafrique a été convoqué mardi, pour la deuxième fois en une semaine, au ministère des Affaires étrangères à Bangui pour répondre des agissements au Tchad de l'ancien chef d'état-major centrafricain François Bozizé, a-t-on appris de source officielle.

(13/08/2002)
Arrivée à Brazzaville des présidents Patassé et Bongo
Brazzaville, Congo (PANA) - Les chefs d'Etat centrafricain, Ange-Félix Patassé et gabonais Omar Bongo, sont arrivés mardi après-midi à Brazzaville où ils assisteront, mercredi, à la cérémonie d'investiture de leur homologue congolais Denis Sassou Nguesso, élu le 10 mars 2002, a-t-on constaté sur place.

(13/08/2002, 19h17)
Morosité pour la fête de l'indépendance en Centrafrique
BANGUI, 13 août (AFP) - La République centrafricaine a célébré mardi dans la morosité le 42ème anniversaire de son accession à l'indépendance, terni par un marasme économique sans précédent et les bruits de bottes de ces derniers jours à sa frontière avec le Tchad.

(13/08/2002, 16h18)
Importante saisie de diamants à l'aéroport de Bangui
BANGUI, 13 août (AFP) - Les services de sécurité de l'aéroport de Bangui ont saisi dimanche, lors d'un contrôle de routine, un lot de diamants destiné à être exporté frauduleusement de Centrafrique, a-t-on appris mardi de source officielle.

(13/08/2002)
Appel à la modernisation du système de paiement dans la CEMAC
Brazzaville, Congo (PANA) - Les participants au Comité national de crédit du Congo ont demandé à Brazzaville aux Etats membres de la Communauté économique et monétaire de l'Afrique centrale (CEMAC) de moderniser le système de paiement dans l'espace communautaire, a-t-on appris mardi de source officielle dans la capitale congolaise.

(12/08/2002, 19h09)
Fête nationale : message de félicitations du président Patassé à Idriss Deby
BANGUI, 12 août (AFP) - Le président centrafricain, Ange-Félix Patassé, a adressé lundi un message de félicitations et d'amitié à son homologue tchadien Idriss Deby, à l'occasion de la fête nationale du Tchad célébrée le 11 août, a rapporté la radio nationale à Bangui.

(12/08/2002, 19h04)
Bangui a envoyé des renforts la semaine dernière dans la région de Kabo (source militaire)
BANGUI, 12 août (AFP) - Des renforts centrafricains ont été dépêchés dans la région de Kabo après l'affrontement mardi dernier à la frontière tchado-centrafricaine, a affirmé lundi à l'AFP à Bangui une source militaire ayant requis l'anonymat.

(12/08/2002, 18h32)
Les forces de Miskine contrôlent Kabo (source autorisée centrafricaine)
LIBREVILLE, 12 août (AFP) - Les forces de l'ex-rebelle tchadien Abdoulaye Miskine, qui a rang de colonel au sein des Forces armées centrafricaines (FACA), "contrôlent" la localité de Kabo, a affirmé lundi à l'AFP depuis Libreville une source autorisée centrafricaine ayant requis l'anonymat.

(12/08/2002, 17h34)
Attaque de Kabo : N'Djamena dément toute implication de l'armée tchadienne
N'DJAMENA, 12 août (AFP) - Le gouvernement tchadien a démenti lundi "toute participation de l'armée tchadienne" dans l'attaque menée la veille contre la ville de Kabo, en Centrafrique, par des éléments fidèles à l'ancien chef d'état-major centrafricain, le général françois Bozizé.

(12/08/2002, 17h03)
Le général Bozizé confirme la prise de la ville centrafricaine de Kabo
N'DJAMENA, 12 août (AFP) - L'ancien chef d'état-major des Forces armées centrafricaines (FACA), le général François Bozizé, a confirmé lundi à l'AFP à N'Djamena que ses hommes avaient pris la veille la ville centrafricaine de Kabo, située à environ 6O km au sud de la frontière avec le Tchad.

(11/08/2002, 14h51)
Des partisans du général Bozizé ont attaqué Kabo (militaires tchadiens)
N'DJAMENA, 11 août (AFP) - Des partisans basés en Centrafrique de l'ancien chef d'état-major de l'armée centrafricaine, le général François Bozizé, ont attaqué dans la nuit de samedi à dimanche la ville centrafricaine de Kabo, qu'ils occupent, a-t-on appris dimanche à N'Djamena de sources militaires tchadiennes.

(10/08/2002, 17h18)
Le sommet tripartite de Khartoum reporté sine die (officiel)
KHARTOUM, 10 août (AFP)- Un sommet tripartite, réunissant les chefs d'Etat du Tchad, de Centrafrique et du Soudan, qui devait se tenir lundi à Khartoum, a été reporté sine die, a-t-on appris samedi de source officielle soudanaise.

(10/08/2002, 15h00)
L'émissaire libyen rencontre le président Déby
N'DJAMENA, 10 août (AFP) - Le président tchadien Idriss Deby s'est entretenu samedi en fin de matinée avec Mohamed Al Madani Al Azhari, porteur d'un message verbal du colonel Mouamar Khadafi, sur la situation à la frontière tchado-centrafricaine, a annoncé la radio tchadienne.

(10/08/2002, 14h22)
Les militaires radiés seront traduits en justice
BANGUI, 10 août (AFP) - Plusieurs dizaines de militaires radiés ces derniers jours des Forces Armées Centrafricaines (FACA) seront traduits en justice, ont annoncé samedi les autorités militaires à la radio nationale centrafricaine.

(10/08/2002, 13h01)
Emissaire libyen auprès des présidents Patassé et Déby
BANGUI, 10 août (AFP) - Le président centrafricain Ange-Félix Patassé, s'est entretenu vendredi soir à Bangui avec Mohamed Al Madani Al Azhari, porteur d'un message du colonel Mouamar Khadafi, sur la situation à la frontière tchado-centrafricaine, a annoncé samedi matin la radio nationale.

(09/08/2002, 00h13)
L'armée tchadienne voulait capturer Miskine (ministre AE centrafricain)
BANGUI, 9 août (AFP) - Le ministre centrafricain des affaires étrangères, Agba Otikpo Mézodè, a déclaré vendredi soir que l'objectif pour l'armée tchadienne de l'accrochage, mardi dernier, à la frontière tchado-centrafricaine, était de capturer l'ex-rebelle tchadien Abdoulaye Miskine, a annoncé la radio nationale.

(09/08/2002, 12h43)
Conférence des partis et des parlementaires à l'initiative de la BONUCA
BANGUI, 9 août (AFP) - L'ensemble de la classe politique centrafricaine est réuni depuis jeudi à Bangui dans le cadre de la "conférence des partis politiques et des parlementaires" organisée à l'initiative du Bureau des Nations unies pour la Centrafrique (BONUCA), a constaté un journaliste de l'AFP.

(08/08/2002)
Bongo appelle à la sagesse les président Patassé et Déby
Libreville, Gabon (PANA) - Le président gabonais Omar Bongo a invité à la sagesse ses homologues Idriss Déby du Tchad et Ange Félix Patassé de Centrafrique afin qu'ils mettent fin à la menace d'affrontement entre leurs deux pays et empruntent le chemin du dialogue.

(08/08/2002)
Bangui sceptique quant à une rapide normalisation avec N'djaména
Bangui, Centrafrique (PANA) - Certains milieux gouvernementaux centrafricains ont fait part, jeudi, de leur scepticisme quant à la volonté de N'djaména pour une "normalisation effective" des relations avec Bangui, malgré la déclaration apaisante, mercredi, du ministre de l'Intérieur, M. Joseph Monzoulé.

(08/08/2002)
Tchad-RCA : les incidents frontaliers préoccupent la CEN-SAD
Tripoli, Libye (PANA) - Le secrétariat de la Communauté des Etats Sahélo-Sahariens (CEN-SAD) s'est déclaré profondément préoccupé par le regain de tension à la frontière entre le Tchad et la Centrafrique, deux pays membres de cette organisation panafricaine.

(08/08/2002, 21h16)
Les "mercenaires" prisonniers se revendiquent d'Abdoulaye Miskine
N'DJAMENA, 8 août (AFP) - Les dix "mercenaires" faits prisonniers par l'armée tchadienne lors d'un accrochage meurtrier, mardi, à la frontière centrafricaine, ont été présentés jeudi à la presse à N'Djamena et ont déclaré appartenir au groupe de l'ex-rebelle tchadien Abdoulaye Miskine, a constaté le correspondant de l'AFP.

(08/08/2002, 20h40)
Accrochage frontalier : le président Bongo appelle ses pairs "à la sagesse"
LIBREVILLE, 8 août (AFP) - Le président gabonais Omar Bongo, "préoccupé" par les tensions entre le Tchad et la Centrafrique depuis l'accrochage frontalier de mardi, a appelé ses homologues "à la sagesse pour que cesse le bruit des armes", selon un communiqué transmis jeudi à l'AFP à Libreville.

(08/08/2002, 15h47)
Les Tchadiens de RCA demandent une "décision ferme" de Patassé sur Miskine
BANGUI, 8 août (AFP) - La communauté tchadienne en République centrafricaine a demandé au président Ange-Félix Patassé de prendre une "décision ferme" à l'égard du tchado-centrafricain Abdoulaye Miskine, a t-on appris jeudi auprès de cette communauté.

(08/08/2002, 13h48)
La purge se poursuit au sein de l'armée : 14 radiations supplémentaires
BANGUI, 8 août (AFP) - Quatorze nouveaux militaires ont été radiés des forces armées centrafricaines (FACA) sur décision du ministre délégué à la Défense chargé de la restructuration des armées, le général de division Xavier Sylvestre Yangongo, a annoncé mercredi soir la radio nationale.

(07/08/2002)
Confusion et tension sur la frontière Tchad-RCA
Des affrontements armés ont éclaté mardi sur la frontière entre le Tchad et la République centrafricaine (RCA). Une nouvelle fois les deux pays s’accusent mutuellement d’agression.

(07/08/2002)
Le procès du coup d'Etat en Centrafrique reporté d'une semaine
Bangui, Centrafrique (PANA) - L'ouverture de la deuxième session criminelle consacrée à la tentative de coup d'Etat du 28 mai 2001 en Centrafrique a été reportée du 12 au 19 août 2002, a-t-on appris, lundi, de source officielle à Bangui.

(07/08/2002)
Kadhafi reçoit un message du président Ange-Félix Patassé
Tripoli, Libye (PANA) - Le Colonel Mouammar Kadhafi de Libye a reçu, mercredi, un message du président centrafricain, Ange-Félix Patassé, portant sur les développements sur la scène africaine, indique-t-on de source officielle à Tripoli.

(07/08/2002)
Surprise à Bangui après des incidents frontaliers avec le Tchad
Bangui, Centrafrique (PANA) - Les autorités centrafricaines se sont déclarées "surprises" mercredi de l'annonce, mardi par le gouvernement tchadien, d'incidents frontaliers ayant opposé, selon N'djaména, des troupes tchadiennes à des "mercenaires" venus de Centrafrique.

(07/08/2002)
Kadhafi et Deby ont eu un entretien téléphonique mardi
Tripoli, Libye (PANA) - Le président tchadien Idriss Deby s'est entretenu mardi soir au téléphone avec le guide de la révolution libyenne, le colonel Mouammar Kadhafi, à propos des développements sur la scène africaine et des moyens de consolider la coopération entre les deux pays voisins.

(07/08/2002)
La nouvelle assurance CEMAC disponible sur le marché
Yaoundé, Cameroun (PANA) - La carte internationale d'assurance et de responsabilité civile automobile des pays membres de la Communauté économique et monétaire de l'Afrique centrale (CEMAC) est déjà disponible au Cameroun, a-t-on annoncé de source officielle à Yaoundé.

(07/08/2002, 01h58)
Bangui "déplore" les incidents à la frontière tchado-centrafricaine
BANGUI, 7 août (AFP) - Le ministre centrafricain de l'Intérieur, Joseph Monzoulé, a déploré dans la soirée de mercredi les incidents qui se sont produits la veille à la frontière entre le Tchad et la Centrafrique, a rapporté la radio nationale à Bangui.

(07/08/2002, 00h10)
Accrochage frontalier: le président Deby invoque le "droit de poursuite"
N'DJAMENA, 7 août (AFP) - Le président tchadien Idriss Deby a expliqué mercredi soir, lors d'un entretien avec l'AFP, que l'armée tchadienne avait usé de son "droit de poursuite" au cours de l'accrochage survenu la veille avec des "mercenaires" à la frontière avec la République centrafricaine (RCA).

(07/08/2002, 20h53)
Accrochage frontalier: convocation de l'ambassadeur du Tchad à Bangui
BANGUI, 7 août (AFP) - L'ambassadeur du Tchad à Bangui, Maitine Djoumbé, a été convoqué mercredi au ministère centrafricain des Affaires étrangères, au lendemain du nouvel incident frontalier entre la République centrafricaine (RCA) et le Tchad, a annoncé la radio nationale centrafricaine.

(07/08/2002, 20h20)
Le tchado-centrafricain Miskine source de tensions entre les deux pays
LIBREVILLE, 7 août (AFP) - L'ancien rebelle tchadien Abdoulaye Miskine et sa "force spéciale", dépendant directement de la présidence centrafricaine, constituent depuis des mois une source de tensions entre le Tchad et la RCA.

(07/08/2002, 14h27)
Accrochage frontalier: "lourd bilan" côté centrafricain, selon Bangui
BANGUI, 7 août (AFP) - L'accrochage qui s'est produit mardi à la frontière entre le Tchad et la Centrafrique s'est soldé par un "lourd bilan" du côté centrafricain, a-t-on appris mercredi de source militaire centrafricaine ayant requis l'anonymat.

(06/08/2002, 21h32)
La deuxième session criminelle de la RCA repoussée d'une semaine
BANGUI, 6 août (AFP) - Le ministre centrafricain de la Justice, Marcel Météfara, a décidé de repousser d'une semaine l'ouverture de la deuxième session criminelle en Centrafrique, initialement prévue le 12 août, a annoncé mardi soir la radio nationale.

(06/08/2002, 21h00)
Regain de tension à la frontière entre les deux pays
LIBREVILLE, 6 août (AFP) - Des incidents armés, qui se seraient soldés par une vingtaine de morts, se sont déroulés mardi à la frontière entre le Tchad et la République centrafricaine (RCA), relançant la tension entre les deux pays à quelques jours d'un sommet tripartite prévu à Khartoum (Soudan).

(06/08/2002, 20h14)
Bangui accuse l'armée tchadienne d'avoir attaqué ses forces
LIBREVILLE, 6 août (AFP) - La République centrafricaine (RCA) a accusé l'armée tchadienne d'avoir attaqué mardi des positions des Forces armées centrafricaines (FACA), pénétrant jusqu'à une quinzaine de kilomètres en territoire centrafricain, a-t-on déclaré de source officielle.

(06/08/2002, 19h28)
Vingt deux morts dans l'attaque d'une position tchadienne par des "mercenaires"
N'DJAMENA, 6 août (AFP) - Vingt "mercenaires" et deux militaires tchadiens ont été tués mardi lors de l'attaque par des hommes non-identifiés d'une position militaire tchadienne à la frontière tchado-centrafricaine, a-t-on appris de sources militaires tchadiennes.

(06/08/2002, 15h42)
Grève à la mairie de Bangui: rejet d'une proposition du gouvernement
BANGUI, 6 août (AFP) - Le personnel de la mairie de Bangui, en grève depuis lundi pour exiger le versement immédiat de sept mois d'arriérés de salaire sur un total de 42 mois, a rejeté une offre du gouvernement proposant un premier paiement jugé insuffisant, a-t-on appris mardi de source syndicale.

(05/08/2002)
Bangui demande le soutien de Paris auprès du FMI et de la BM
Paris, France (PANA) - Le Premier ministre centrafricain, Martin Ziguélé, a demandé à la France de se faire son avocat auprès des bailleurs de fonds internationaux, et surtout de faire un geste dans le cadre de la coopération bilatérale, a-t-on appris, lundi, à Paris de source centrafricaine.

(05/08/2002, 17h17)
Le PM de Centrafrique s'entretient avec le ministre français de la Coopération
PARIS, 5 août (AFP) - 18h17 - Le Premier ministre centrafricain Martin Ziguélé et le ministre français délégué à la Coopération Pierre André Wiltzer se sont entretenus lundi à Paris de la coopération entre les deux pays.

(05/08/2002, 13h47)
Arriérés de salaire: la mairie de Bangui paralysée par la grève
BANGUI, 5 août (AFP) - Le personnel de la mairie de Bangui a déclenché lundi une grève d'une semaine reconductible afin d'obtenir le versement d'arriérés de salaire, paralysant le fonctionnement de la municipalité, a constaté un journaliste de l'AFP.

(05/08/2002, 13h41)
Opérations de désarmement: les quartiers sud-ouest de Bangui bouclés
BANGUI, 5 août (AFP) - Les quartiers sud-ouest de Bangui ont été bouclés lundi par la police, la gendarmerie et l'armée qui procèdent à des fouilles sytématiques des domiciles dans le cadre des opérations de récupération des armes détenues illégalement, a constaté un journaliste de l'AFP.

(04/08/2002, 21h05)
Grève du personnel de la municipalité de Bangui à partir de lundi
BANGUI, 4 août (AFP) - Le personnel de la municipalité de Bangui va se mettre en grève pour huit jours, à compter du lundi 5 août, afin d'obtenir le versement d'au moins sept mois d'arriérés de salaire sur un total de 42 mois dus, a-t-on appris dimanche de source syndicale.

(04/08/2002, 13h29)
Nouvelles radiations au sein des forces armées centrafricaines
BANGUI, 4 août (AFP) - Onze gendarmes et trois militaires ont été radiés des Forces armées centrafricaines (FAC) pour de divers crimes et délits, a rapporté dimanche la radio nationale à Bangui.

(03/08/2002, 19h30)
Conseil des ministres de l'Union économique de l'Afrique centrale
BANGUI, 3 août (AFP) - Le conseil des ministres de l'Union économique de l'Afrique centrale (UEAC) s'est ouvert samedi à Bangui pour examiner plusieurs dossiers, dont la création d'une compagnie communautaire de transport aérien et l'institution d'un passeport commun, a constaté le correspondant de l'AFP.

(02/08/2002, 21h52)
Radiation d'une dizaine de soldats coupables d'exactions sur des civils
BANGUI, 2 août (AFP) - Quelque 13 militaires centrafricains, responsables d'exactions sur des civils, ont été radiés des Forces armées centrafricaines (FAC), selon un communiqué de ministère centrafricain de la Défense lu vendredi sur les antennes de la radio nationale à Bangui.

(01/08/2002, 20h14)
Un infanticide provoque une marche de plusieurs centaines femmes
BANGUI, 1er août (AFP) - Plusieurs centaines de femmes d'une ville du nord-ouest de la Centrafrique ont organisé une marche pacifique pour manifester leur désapprobation après le décès, en juillet dernier, d'un adolescent battu à mort par sa mère, a rapporté jeudi un journal de Bangui.


AGENCE INTERGOUVERNEMENTALE DE LA FRANCOPHONIE cf. AIF, FRANCOPHONIE INTERGOVERNMENTAL AGENCY
http://www.francophonie.org/oif/index.cfm

Agence intergouvernementale de la francophonie. Agence de coopération culturelle et technique. AKE ASSI, Laurent (Rapp.) ; GUINKO, S. (Rapp.) ; ABEYE, J. (Rapp.). Contribution à l'identification et au recensement des plantes utilisées dans la médecine traditionnelle et la pharmacopée en Empire Centrafricain. Paris : ACCT, 1978, 139 p. ISBN 92-9028-009-3

Agence intergouvernementale de la francophonie. Agence de coopération culturelle et technique. AKE ASSI, Laurent (Dir.). Contribution aux études ethnobotaniques et floristiques en Répubique Centrafricaine. Paris : ACCT, 1985, 139 p.

2005
"CAR needs to revamp its media landscape, says AIF." PanaPress, 16 September 2005.
Bangui, Central African Republic (PANA) - Francophonie Intergovernmental [Agency] [AIF]... AIF's media officer, Tidiane Dioh, on Friday in Bangui called on Central African Republic media practitioners to "examine their conscience" in order to fashion a "new press" in the country. (http://www.panapress.com/paysindexlat.asp)

AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CF. UNITED STATES AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (USAID)

Cf. Sperling, Philip Irving. Evaluation of the Bangui Seminar. Washington: Agency for International Development, 1973. 67p. 30 cm.

AGRAR UND HYDROTECHNIK (geography, economics, etc.)

Agrar und Hydrotechnik. Landwirtschafliches Regionalentwicklungsvorhaben Ouham-Pende. Essen, Germany, 1976.

AGRICOLA METALS CORPORATION cf. UNITED STATES RELATIONS

In 1972, in order to improve the strained relations between the countries, French Finance Minister Giscard d'Estaing flew to Bangui for meeting with Bokassa. The most successful outcome of the visit was a new tree-way agreement to exploit the uranium which Bokassa wanted revenues from. Although the French were still interested in guarding their option for participation in the uranium venture, Bokassa signed an agreement with Agricola Metals Corporation, a US firm which was to begin exploitation of the uranium as soon as possible. This firm also had the intension of prospecting in the north-eastern sector of the CAR where they hoped to find diamonds because of the similarity of the terrain to current diamond-producing areas in the CAR (ACR 1973: B516).

AGRICULTURE Cf. AGRO-INDUSTRY, FOOD CROPS, ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

The Ngandu [Bantu people who live in the Lobaye region] moved into the area only 120 years ago... the Aka [pygmies] depend heavily on Ngandu for manioc and other village goods... The Ngandu...[grow] manioc, plaintain, yams, taro, maize, cucumbers, squash, okra, mango, pineapples, palm oil, and rice. The domesticated crops provide the majority of calories to their diet during the year. They also keep chickens, muskovy ducks, goats, sheep, and dogs. Men hunt occasionally with crossbows, steel-wire snares, and guns for monkeys, a variety of small duikers, wild pigs, bongos and other animals. All Ngandu grow at least some coffee as a cash crop. Ngandu men occasionally hunt, but they receive the majority of their meat through trade with Aka. The Aka provide the Ngandu with game meat, honey, koko [leaves], and other forest products, and the Ngandu provide the Aka with manioc and other village products. There are a government-sponsored school, dispensary, and police station in the village. (Hewlett, Intimate Fathers, p. 43-44).

1987
Seed cotton output in 1987 is thought to have fallen by as much as one third from its level of 35,000 tons in 1986... the area under cultivation was scheduled to be reduced from 83,105 ha in 1985/86 to 60,000 ha in 1986/87 after pressure from IMF on the industry parastatal, Société Centrafricaine de Développement Africole (Socada). Coffee production appears to have recovered from 11,400 tons in 1986 to 15,000 tons in 1987. This partly reflects the end of the three year recovery cycle after the serious drought in 1983. With the support of the World Bank, the African Development Bank, the EC and France since 1986, the government is promoting coffee growing among smallholders rather than the traditional plantations. Tobacco output was probably unchanged in 1987 but the industry continues to suffer from the poor quality of the crop. Attempts at diversifying the agricultural sector have not yet contributed to overall performance. Major new oil palm plantations have not yet reached production stage while the decline of the Saudi riyal (as a result of its connection with the dollar) has caused delays in the Ouaka sugar complex. (EIU Country Report, "Central African Republic," 1st Quarter 1988, p. 21)

AGRO-INDUSTRY cf. AGRICULTURE, MOROCCO

The [CAR-Moroccan] commission communiqué also announced that a Moroccan, Hassan Regragui, would leave within days to begin setting up the planned joint venture bank in Bangui. This follows the agreement signed in February [1989] and the bank will be known as the Banque Populaire Maroco-Centraricaine. The two countries plan to cooperate more in encouraging small business, agro-industry and mining activities, and these may well be areas in which the news institution [bank] takes a particular interest... [Morocco's] main contribution could well come in diversification of agriculture. The kingdom is already a leading horticultural producer. The production of luxury fruit and vegetables is becoming an important export earner for several sub-Saharan states such as Kenya, Nigeria and Zambia, and Morocco recently helped Congo [Brazzaville?] establish a market garden project. (EIU Country Report, "Central African Republic," 2nd Quarter 1990, p. 26)

AID cf. FRANCE'S RELATIONS WITH THE CAR, FRANCO-CENTRAFRICAIN RELATIONS

"Panorama de L'Economie Centrafricaine." Bulletin de l'Afrique Noire, 20 (December 1977):18, 309.

Millairds (Billions) Fr CFA 1961 1965 1970 1975 1976
Aide française globale 2.175 2.420 2.250 6.350 5.350 (Total French Aid)
Source: "Panorama de L'Economie Centrafricaine." Bulletin de l'Afrique Noire, 20 (December 1977):18, 309.

1982
AID INCREASED DUE TO BARGAINING DURING A CRISIS
Relations with France got off to a bad start [after Kolingba's coup] in 1981 when a French Minister described the military takeover as a 'sign of failure'. However, the situation was improved by a visit to Bangui in February 1982 by Mitterand's African advisor, Guy Penne, who extended an invitation to Kolingba to make an official visit to France. This was immediately followed by the crisis produced by Patassé's taking refuge in the French embassy in Bangui after the failure of a coup attempt. The CAR authorities immediately drew the inference of French involvement in the plot - particularly when France, citing humanitarian and ethical motives, refused to hand Patassé over to justice. This was extremely upsetting to the Kolingba regime, which saw Patassé as a serious threat. (ACR, 1983, B353)
Penne was sent back to the CAR to solve the crisis. The French embassy was surrounded by CAR troops, and a 48-hour ultimatum was delivered for Patassé to be handed over. The French did not reply with the request although, according to international law, embassies are 'inviolable' but not 'extra-territorial', and cannot provide sanctuary for international criminals. The climb-down of the CAR was of course tied to the fact that France not only has 1,200 troops in the country but also provides aid amounting to two-thirds of Budget revenues, making up the deficit and paying for civil servants' salaries. The decision to allow Patassé to be sent into exile was believed to be linked to a promise of increased aid (ACR, 1983, B353)

2005
"CAR gets multimillion euro French aid." PanaPress, 1 July 2005. www.panapress.com/paysindexlat.asp
France plans to grant an additional four million euro in financial aid to the Central African Republic whose President François Bozize Monday began a weeklong working visit to Paris, official sources said here. (www.panapress.com/paysindexlat.asp)

AIDE AUX LÉPREUX cf. LEPROSY, HEALTH
http://www.lepra.ch/Franz/projektefr.htm
40 ans Aide aux Lépreux 1974
Prise en charge de la coordination ILEP en République Centrafricaine.

Projets: République Centrafricaine
En République Centrafricaine (RCA), l'Aide aux Lépreux soutient en plus de cinq centres anti-lèpre privés surtout le programme lèpre national. Le pays fait partie des états les plus endémiques au monde et doit fournir des efforts particuliers pour atteindre le but fixé par l'OMS, d'éliminer la lèpre jusqu'en l'an 2005. La RCA est un exemple représentatif des pays qui, pour des raisons de troubles politiques ces dernières années, n'a pas été en mesure de mettre sur pied une structure dans le système de la santé dans laquelle les malades de la lèpre auraient pu être inclus. De ce fait, un bureau de l'Aide aux Lépreux a été ouvert en octobre 2000 à Bangui avec un représentant. Il a pour tâches essentielles d'être actif dans la réalisation de la stratégie développée en collaboration avec l'OMS et le ministère de la santé local et de garantir une utilisation efficace des moyens mis à disposition. (Aide aux Lépreux, http://www.lepra.ch/Franz/projektefr.htm)

AIDS cf. HIV, SIDA,

Cf. John Iliffe, The African AIDS Epidemic. A History. Athens/Oxford/Cape Town, Ohio University Press/James Currey/Double Storey, 2006, ix-214p.

Many people believe that Aids is spread most rapidly in towns, where varied social contacts are freer. In the CAR [in 1990] 37 per cent of the 2.77 mn inhabitants live in urban areas. Although the degree of urbanisation is rather lower than in neighbouring states, Aids is still spreading at a rapid pace. Some 662 cases of the disease were identified in 1984-88, but 142 new cases were reported in the first quarter of 1989. At this pace, Aids is sure to impose an enormous strain on the already limited health services. The country has only 2,200 hospital beds, and about 138 practicing doctors and 25 pharmacists. (EIU Country Report, "Central African Republic," 1st Quarter 1990, p. 25)

Danielle Mitterrand, wife of the French president [Mitterrand], visited the CAR in her capacity as head of the France Libertés foundation in November [1989]. She launched an information campaign to warn school children of the dangers of Aids [HIV-infection]. The disease represents probably the fastest growing threat to health in tropical Africa... The dangers of the disease are being publicised through broadcasts and the distribution of 100,000 school notebooks and pens, prepared by France Libertés, and printed with warnings and advice. (EIU Country Report, "Central African Republic," 1st Quarter 1990, p. 25)

"Statement by M. Ruhul Amin, Counsellor Permanent Mission of Bangladesh to the United Nations at the Security Council on the situation in the Central African Republic
New York, 21 September 2001." www.un.int/bangladesh/images/sc/st/210901car.htm

We are encouraged to note from the World Bank representative that some $17 million have been allocated for HIV/AIDS. That responds to a very urgent need....( "Statement by M. Ruhul Amin, Counsellor Permanent Mission of Bangladesh to the United Nations at the Security Council on the situation in the Central African Republic, New York, 21 September 2001." www.un.int/bangladesh/images/sc/st/210901car.htm

"Japan provides US $630,000 to fight HIV/AIDS." IRIN, Nairobi, 2 Nov 2001.

The Government of the Central African Republic (CAR) and Japanese NGO Amis d'Afrique (Friends of Africa) signed a letter of agreement on Wednesday for a US $630,000 grant in support of reinforcing HIV/AIDS responses in communities in the CAR, the World Bank announced from Bangui. The grant will finance activities in the fight against HIV/AIDS in local communities by reinforcing a number of ongoing interventions undertaken by Amis d'Afrique. The grant, has four components: medical care and treatment; home-based care and family support; information, education and communication and prevention in schools and youth centers; and capacity-building with evaluation and monitoring. "The grant supports an innovative approach of contracting NGOs and other community groups in the delivery of HIV/AIDS interventions in the CAR," the World Bank reported. "Amis d'Afrique, the grant implementing agency, established in 1993 to assist in the fight against HIV/AIDS, has been building capacity at the local level," it continued. "In addition, the agency will contract other NGOs to deliver information, education and communication programmes in the schools or to train traditional healers in HIV/AIDS care and support in order to reach a wider segment of the country." The World Bank Vice-President for the Africa Region, Callisto Madavo, said the grant "provides an opportunity for meaningful partnership among the government, the World Bank, Amis d'Afrique and the civil society in the common goal of mitigating the impact of HIV/AIDS on the economy and curbing the epidemic in the country". Director-General and President of Amis d'Afrique Mizuko Tokunaga said he was "grateful that our activity can be expanded by working together with the World Bank project" in light of the increasing number of HIV/AIDS patients. The World Bank estimates that annual per capita growth in half the countries of sub-Saharan Africa is falling by 0.5 percent to 1.2 percent as a direct result of AIDS and that by 2010, per capita GDP in some of the hardest hit countries may drop by as much as 8 percent. Annual basic care and treatment for a person with AIDS (without antiretroviral drugs) can cost as much as two to three times per capita GDP in the poorest countries. Today, 36 million people live with HIV/AIDS, more than 95 percent of them in developing countries. Over 21 million people have so far died, three million of them in 2000 alone. AIDS is now the leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa. ("Japan provides US $630,000 to fight HIV/AIDS," IRIN, Nairobi, 2 Nov 2001.)

AIMÉ (geography)

Aimé, J. "Le Seuil de Zinga." Bull. I.E.C., 5 (1953):69-76.

AIR AFRIQUE

Air Afrique. Centrafrique, Congo, Gabon. Guides touristiques de l'Afrique. Paris: Hatier, 1979. 144p. ed. by Eyraud, Arlette.

AIR FORCE

In 1989 the [CAR had a 300 man] Air Force... [that] lacks combat aircraft or armed helicopters. It [had] two C47, two Cessna 337, and one DC4; for liaison it has eight Al-60 and six MH-1521; and one AS-350 helicopter and one SE-3130 helicopter. (Webb, "Central African Republic," ACR 1989-1990, p. B172).
...the C-47 or "Gooney Bird" as it was affectionately nicknamed... was adapted from the DC-3 commercial airliner which appeared in 1936. The first C-47s were ordered in 1940 and by the end of WW II, 9,348 had been procured for AAF use. They carried personnel and cargo, and in a combat role, towed troop-carrying gliders and dropped paratroops into enemy territory. After WW II, many C-47s remained in USAF service, participating in the Berlin Airlift and other peacetime activities. During the Korean Conflict, C-47s hauled supplies, dropped paratroops, evacuated wounded and dropped flares for night bombing attacks. In Vietnam, the C-47 served again as a transport, but it was also used in a variety of other ways which included flying ground attack (gunship), reconnaissance, and psychological warfare missions. The C-47D on display, the last C-47 in routine USAF use, was flown to the Museum in 1975. (www.nhpeas.ang.af.mil/History/c47.htm)
- C-47 SKYTRAIN
- Cessna 337 Skymaster
The Cessna 337 Skymaster offers an alternative to airships and helicopters for sports event coverage. The 337 can maintain aloft for an entire event while a helicopter has to land to refuel. Capable of faster airspeeds the aircraft can reposition faster than a blimp preventing the possiblility of missing an important piece of action from a certain vantage point.
- MAX HOLSTE MH 1521
A rugged STOL transport aircraft, the Max Holste MH1521 Broussard survives in military service only with the Chad [and the Central African Republic's?] Air Force, France having retired its examples. (www.utility-aircraft.com/planes/max-holste.htm)
- Ecureuil AS350 helicopter www.aircraft-charter-world.com/helicopters/as350.htm

AIRPORTS cf. BANGUI-MPOKO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT

Finally, the $15 mn improvements to the Bangui-Mpoko international airport are scheduled for completion in 1988. (EIU Country Report, "Central African Republic," 1st Quarter 1988, p. 22)

AIZPUN

Aizpun, Isabel and Miguel Marin. Zaire y Centroáfrica [Zaire and Central Africa]. Barcelona: Laertes, S.A., Colección Rumbo a…, 1992. Cf. pp. 95-131.

AKA
Joseph Aka

Aka, Joseph. "Interview in Bayanga, Camp Police." 16 February 1996. Field Notes of Rebecca Hardin, listed in "Translating the Forest: Tourism, Trophy Hunting, and Transformation of Forest Use in Southwestern Central African Republic (CAR)," Ph.D. diss., Yale University, 2000, p. 624.

AKA PYGMIES cf. BAHUCHET, HEWLETT, GUILLAUME, VAN DE KOPPEL,

Hewlitt, Barry Steven, J.M.H. van de Koppel and M. van de Koppel. "Causes of Death among Aka Pygmies of the Central African Republic." Pre-publication manuscript.

Aka health
Relatively few Aka terms and associated symptoms could not be translated into the Western medical model. These include: 1) ekundi, where a child or mother dies because the mother committed adultery while she was pregnant; 2) gbe, where a child dies because a parent ate a specific taboo rat (Cricetomys emini); 3) dikundi or balimba, a person dies from witchcraft or sorcery; 4) himbi, a child dies because a his/her mother had intercourse before the child could walk well; and 5) zele gora, because a woman dies because she marries while still in mourning for her previous husband; and, 6) kongo or kole, "illness of the rainbow", where an individual dies after walking on a mushroom in a damp spot in the forest where a snake, which has colors of the rainbow, has rested, and the dangerous mushroom has emerged. In this last case the individual experiences paralysis of legs and sometimes arms, and occasionally develops boils over the body. (Barry Hewlitt, J.M.H. van de Koppel and M. van de Koppel, "Causes of Death among Aka Pygmies of the Central African Republic.")

The Bofi-Aka are more acculturated than the other two groups of Aka - they maintain their camp in the village year-round and prefer to speak the Bofi language of the villagers, instead of the Aka language. Their high incidence of respiratory problems may be a result of their heavy smoking. All Aka like to smoke tobacco, but Bofi-Aka, both men and women, smoke more frequently. Villagers pay them with tobacco, they trade food items for tobacco, [they] have tobacco plots of their own, can frequently be seen walking around the village smoking a pipe, and they do not share the cigarette or pipe with others, like the Aka. There seems to be [a] cultural focus on tobacco use even more so than for villagers... Another phenomen[on] apparently accompanying Bofi-Aka acculturation is the incidence of sumbi, "going crazy" or insanity. Not a single individual from the other two groups mentioned a death occuring from sumbi, or anything even similar, while five Bofi-Aka were said to have died from it. (Barry Hewlitt, J.M.H. van de Koppel and M. van de Koppel, "Causes of Death among Aka Pygmies of the Central African Republic.")

Variation exists (between the three groups) in the incidence of death by witchcraft, from zero from the Boki-Aka, where one might expect a high percentage of deaths from witchcraft due to contact with villagers, to 5% among Bagandou Aka, and 15% among Ndele Aka. No specific factor is evident to explain this variation. Regional preferences and adaptations, the small number of Bofi-Aka interviewed, and the influence of villagers of different ethnic affiliations with distinctive cultural systems are all possible factors that could influence this variation. (Barry Hewlitt, J.M.H. van de Koppel and M. van de Koppel, "Causes of Death among Aka Pygmies of the Central African Republic.")

Deaths attributed to supernatural causes - i.e. witchcraft - also provide data about Aka culture. Aka do not have witches or sorcerers. The only individual in Aka culture who has magical abilities in the nganga, or healer. The nganga, depending on his level of expertise, also can "see" game while on the hunt, predict future events, and cures the ill. Witches and sorcerers are found in the village.

Barry Hewlett, J.M.H. van de Koppel and L.L. Cavalli-Sforza, "Exploration ranges of Aka Pygmies of the Central African Republic," pre-publication manuscript.

Travel done as a consequence of working for villagers represents an important reason for N'Dele Aka movement... 1) helping entrepreneurs transport meat they have traded from Aka to large town markets; 2) carrying the numerous bags of local villagers when they visit the large towns and cities; 3) traveling to the large coffee plantations to work for Europeans or villagers; and 4) traveling to places for various other sorts of work, such as working as an Arab's (Fulbe or Tchadian) servant or working for a lumber company locating mahogany trees. Work related travel is usually to commercial centers... (Barry Hewlett, J.M.H. van de Koppel and L.L. Cavalli-Sforza, "Exploration ranges of Aka Pygmies of the Central African Republic")

AKA PYGMY MUSIC

Cf. Aka Pygmies: Hunting Love & Mockery Songs

Central Africa: Musical Anthology of the AKA Pygmies

AKE

Ake Assi, L. Contribution aux études ethno-botaniques et floristiques en RCA (A contribution to ethno-botanical and floristic studies in the CAR). Paris: ACCT, 1985. 139p.

Ake Assi, L. et al., Contribution à l’identification et au recensement des plantes utilisées dans la médecine traditionnelle et la pharmacopée en République Centrafricaine. ACCT., 1981. 139p. multigr.

AKOL (economics, transport, etc.)
Akol, LAm: Minister of Transport, 1 May 2000:

Cf. "Central African Republic." International Railway Journal, 1 May, 2000.

AKOSAH-SARPONG cf. DIAMONDS, DIETRICH

Akosah-Sarpong, Kofi. "Blood Diamonds in Bangui." 16/01/2003. Cf. Expotimes.net
Kofi Akosah-Sarpong reviews a new investigative report that says the Central African Republic is laundering blood diamonds from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and elsewhere.

AL-MUNTASIR Cf. LIBYA
Libyan Foreign Minister Umar Mustafa al-Muntasir
Cf. "Libyan foreign minister holds talks with officials." IRIN, 2 June 1999.
NAIROBI, 2 Jun 1999 (IRIN) - Libyan Foreign Minister Umar Mustafa al-Muntasir on Monday held talks with CAR government officials in Sirte, Libya. The talks dealt with bilateral relations and ways of strengthening and consolidating cooperation in “various spheres” between the two countries, Libyan television reported.


AL-TAHIR Cf. SUDAN, ISRAEL, SHAMIR, GONEN, EGYPT
Yitzak Shamir, Israeli Prime Minister 1974-1977, envoy to the CAR in 1989.

1989
The [CAR's] decision to restore official relations in January [1989] was in line with a slow but definite trend among francophone African states, but it is difficult to see why the Kolingba government has decided to give the new relationship such a high profile, since the amount of aid that Tel Aviv, itself hard pressed financially, can offer is limited. The invitation to Mr Shamir, a much more controversial figure than the previous prime minister, Mr Peres, to visit Bangui may have been intended as a deliberate signal to the new military government in Sudan. President Kolingba, who has seen violence from the Sudanese civil war spill over into his own country and who broke off diplomatic relations with Sudan in May [1989], may have been warning Khartoum to stay firmly out of Central African affairs. Indeed a statement by Brigadier Tijani Adam al-Tahir, a member of Sudan's ruling council and political advisor for the lawless western province of Darfur, in last September suggested that relations with the CAR had been re-established, although there has been no confirmation from Bangui. (EIU Country Report, "Central African Republic," 4th Quarter 1989, p. 22)

ALAC

ALAC (Atlas Linguistique de l'Afrique Centrale). Situation Linguistique en Afrique Centrale, inventaire préliminaire. La République Centrafricaine. Paris: ACCT & Yaounde: CERDOTOLA, 1984.

ALAIN ROUSSELOT (1938-) (literature, biography, education, etc.)

Alain Rousselot, Jacqueline. Témoin parmi les gosses. Nantes : Éd. du Petit véhicule, 2000. 229p. Novel. Printer. 27-Évreux : Impr. Book???.

ALCOHOL cf. MOCAF, CASTEL, BREWERIES, SORGHUM BEER, PALM WINE, DISTILLED SPIRITS,

1991
The drink sector is divided between two breweries, which are in active competition... the oldest, Mocaf, in place since 1951, is a 100% subsidiary (filiale) of Interbrew since 1990. It employs 260 salaried workers, which is 60% less than when it operated alone (without competition) in the Central African market. The second [brewery]...SCB, a subsidiary of the Castel group, entered the market in 1983 after having started in the CAR by selling wine. It employs 100 persons. In a restricted market of... 330,000 to 350,000 hectoliters (hl) a year, when one company does particularly well, the other suffers a bit. At present [1991] they just about divide the market, with a total sales (chiffre d'affaires) of about 9 billion (milliard, a thousand million) CFA a year. (Gilguy, "Centrafrique," p. 3080).

There were some minor innovations in agriculture... rice only became popular in Ubangi-Shari after Africans learned to ferment a strong liquor from it. (Headrick, Colonialism, Health and Illness, p. 186)

ALDEN
Almquist Alden studied the Apagibeti of north central Congo-Kinshasa who speak a Bantu language but whose culture is similar to that of their Ngbandi neighbors to the north, and whose clans are believed to have descended from common Ngbandi ancestors

Alden Almquist, "Divination and the Hunt in Pagibeti Ideology." In African Divination Systems: Ways of Knowing, ed. Philip M. Peek. Boomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1991, pp. 101-111.

The Apagibeti...Lying along the line separating what used to be termed Bantu from Sudanic language groups, the Apagibeti are speakers of a Libuale dialect and belong linguistically to the Bantu group but culturally to the Sudanic [Ubangian in this case]. Patrilocal and virilocal, all Monveda Apagibeti belong to one of two founder clans, brothers descended from the mythic Kulegenge, common ancestor both to them and to their northern "Sudanic" [Ubangian] neighbors, the Ngbandi. Local authority in the chiefless, precolonial era was vested in the some, the oldest male of the senior lineage in each village. He heard disputes and mediated between the village and the ancestors at the ancestral spirit shrine. (Alden, "Divination and the Hunt in Pagibeti Ideology," p. 102).

A number of persons are particularly dangerous to hunting, gardening, health, and reproductive success. Among them are twins, witches, mangodo (persons whose top teeth erupted before the lower teeth), yingo (forest spirits) [cf. Sango (y)ingo], and sorcerers. Sorcerers are the most feared, as virtually all villagers have private stores of medicines, bebode, whose use may be for good or for ill. As is frequently said, "Nto na nto na eboke te ngake" ("To each man, his own medicine"...). Medicines from neighboring villages, ethnic groups, and dispensaries are sought out by traveling villagers and brought back to the village. They are individually owned by the person who brought them and may be exercised for the benefit of others, often for a fee. One may know the medicine for healing broken bones, another for relieving neck stiffness, another for makings infants walk, another for curing spirit possession, another for an enemy sickness, and another for seizing thieves of garden crops or of domestic or trapped forest aimals. Specific medicines for good fortune in hunting monkey, elephant, and buffalo are found among local villages or among neighboring Bale, Bua, and Ngbandi ethnic groups, respectively. (Alden, "Divination and the Hunt in Pagibeti Ideology," p. 103).

Ownership of such power can be dangerous to its possessors. The greatly feared pomoli, for example, guarantees spectacular success in killing forest game to the individual hunter who employs it for private gain; but, in exchange, members of the hunter's lineage will, one by one, die the slow wasting death of the trapped animals themselves for as long as the medicine is employed. In view of its prevalence and ambivalent valence, bebode ("medicines") is a favorite one-word explanatory tool used to account for the unusual power of a chief, a witch, or a highly successful curer or hunter. (Alden, "Divination and the Hunt in Pagibeti Ideology," p. 103).

ALDRICH

Aldrich, Robert and John Connell, eds. France in World Politics. London & New York: Routledge, 1989.

Aldrich, Robert. Greater France: A History of French Overseas Expansion. New York: Palgrave, 1996.

Cf. "French Equatorial Africa (AEF)" and subsection Oubangui-Chari

North of the French and Belgian Congo was Oubangui-Chari. Various explorers, including Brazza, trekked across the region in the decade after 1889, when the French founded an outpost at Bangui. A treaty between the Congo Free State and France recognized French sovereignty over the territory north of the Oubangui River in 1894, although the delimitation of the frontier between Oubangui-Chari, Chad and German Cameroon altered on several occasions. Oubangui-Chari remained one of France's poorest and least-known colonies except for scandals surrounding the imposition of a head-tax, the murderous use of Africans as porters for caravans between navigable rivers, and the activities of concessionary companies. The Oubangui-Chari had almost no economic or strategic significance, and no other colonial power challenged France's claim. (Aldrich, Greater France, p. 55).

The push toward Lake Chad was a pet project of several French bodies, including the Paris Geographical Society, the Marseille Chamber of Commerce and the Committee for French Africa, which outfitted expeditions to do the deed. Their brief, in addition, was to conquer new territory, secure an opening into central Africa, open trade links and - perhaps more importantly - forestall expansion by Britain, represented on the fringers of the region by missionaries. Expedition succeeded expedition, hobbled by harsh terrain, African hostility, and occasional murder of leadders and lack of porters. The French finally reach Lake Chad in 1897; they raised the flag but did little else. Two years later, another expedition arrived; this time, according to the Committee for French Africa, "the goal was to initiate serious commercial transactions, to establish permanent trading posts, to organize regular trading caravans, to extend our influence by essentially peaceful means through international treaties. Indeed in 1899, after the Fashoda affair, Paris and London signed a convention delimiting the frontiers between their claims.
(Aldrich, Greater France, p. 56).

The Chad expedition took on heroic colours. Both the French commander François Lamy and the African rulers Rabah were killed in action... After the applause died, authorities had little idea of what to do with the newly conquered territories. [Commander] Gentil admitted that Chad was so arid that find drinking water was difficult. He confessed: "I said to myself, when I was alone, that it truly was not worth having killed so many and having suffered so much to conquer such a forsaken country." The military territory of Chad played home to only 20 Europeans at the turn of the twentieth century. Mostly non-commis-sioned officers, their responsibility was to administer a territory which measured almost 1000 km from north to south and 400 km from east to west. Forced labour and various taxes imposed on the population produced revenues equal to half the cost of administration. A single French businessman who trade in ivory and rubber, represented French commerce. The capital, Fort-Lamy, was but a military outpost with a few artisans and a company of French African soldiers. Supplies ran short; hardship was evident. The African suffered the burden of French occupation. A French commander posted to Fort-Lamy complained: "At what price of what hesitations, what sacrifices of money, and, alas, of what atrocious suffering, have we guaranteed supplied for this military territory? The population, decimated by work far beyond its strength, prefers death to porterage... How many corpses line the route from the Possel fortress to Fort-Crampel, and yet projects for a roadway and a rail are under study and said to be indispensable for the future of the colony!" Promoters in Paris called for greater efforts, but in the early twentieth century, dissenting voices, not all anti-colonialist, called for the outright abandonment of a colony which seemed to lack even potential. (Aldrich, Greater France, p. 56-57, citing Pierre Gentil, La Conquête du Tchad (1894-1916). Paris, 2 vols. 1970).

French occupation of equatorial Africa began in Gabon, where in 1839 Captain Bouët-Willaumez signed a treaty with a local chief, whom the French called King Denis. He ceded land along one bank of the Gabon estuary for French port facilities and a trading station; another treaty in 1841 gave France an outpost on the opposite bank. In 1849, France founded Libreville as a settlement for freed slaves, and thereafter enlarged its holdings along the coast. As explorers moved inland from the 1850s onwards, France gained further territory. (Aldrich, Greater France, p. 51).

Lambaréné, on the Obooué river, occupied in 1872, became the launching-pad for expeditions into the interior. These treks, which laid the French claims to much of what became the AEF, were largely the work of Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza, most famous of the French explorers. Brazza was born in Rome in 1852, the son of a count who worked as a museum curator. A childhood meeting with the Marquis de Montaignac, a French admiral, whetted Brazza's appetite for both France and exploration. In 1868, he enrolled at the French Naval Academy and six years later was naturalized as a French citizen. By that time, Brazza had completed his first voyages to the South Atlantic, Algeria (where he witnessed the 1871 Kabyle uprising) and West Africa. (Aldrich, Greater France, p. 51).

In 1875, Brazza undertook his first expedition up the Ogooué river, a two-year journey commissioned by Montaignac, now Minister of the Navy. The major discovery was that the Ogooué was not, as had been believed, a branch of the Congo. On his second expedition, from 1879 to 1882, Brazza obtained a treaty from the chief of the Batéké peoples, Iléo (also known by the title of Makoko), which granted France the territory which formed the bulk of the Moyen-Congo colony. Brazza founded Franceville and the city that came to bear his name, Brazzaville. A third expedition followed from 1883 to 1885. (Aldrich, Greater France, p. 51).

The explorer wrote enthusiastically about the wealth of the Congo. The 'great fertility' of the land "only demands a little effort'' to develop it; Africans, he thought, were the only labour force which could do so in harsh tropical conditions. It would be possible to grow coffee, cocoa and sugar cane, produce palm oil and dyestuffs, collect rubber, fell sandalwood and ebony trees and buy ivory. A network of trading posts stretching from the coast inland could provide a conduit for such commodities to be exported from the African interior to Europe. (Aldrich, Greater France, p. 53, citing Elizabeth Rabut, Brazza Commissaire-Général: le Congo français, 1886-1897. Paris: 1989).

Brazza's expeditions coincided with intense imperial rivalry over central Africa, marked by the entry of an aspiring colonial power into the 'scramble'. King Léopold II of Belgium cherished hopes of increasing the power and prestige of his small country through imperial aggrandisement. Efforts to expand in various parts of the world met with little initial success; the British opposed a Belgian settlement in the Transvaal, in southern Africa, and the Spanish declined Léopold's offer to buy the Philippines. The Belgian monarch saw greater prospects in central Africa, and in 1876 formed an organization ostensibly to promote exploration and the eradication of slavery, the International African Association. Although grouping together national committees with similar objectives - Ferdinand de Lesseps, builder of the Suez Canal, presided over a French committee - the association was, in reality, a cover for Léopold's ambitions. The king also recruited Henry Morton Stanley, an English-born American journalist famous for his search for another explorer, David Livingstone. Soon Léopold's association had achieved quasi-official status as a colonising power in its own right. (Aldrich, Greater France, p. 54).

With the various claims sorted out, the French government in 1886 appointed Brazza Commissioner-General in Equatorial Africa with authority over the Congo and Gabon, a position he held until 1898. Conflict with French businessmen led to Brazza's recall, but he returned to the Congo in 1905 as head of an official investigation into abuses committed by the companies which had obtained government monopolies on economic activity in the AEF. Having completed the inquiry, Brazza set out for Paris, only to die - in suspicious circumstances - in Dakar. All ten copies of his report, probably highly critical of the concession companies, were 'lost'. (Aldrich, Greater France, p. 55, citing Jean Autin, "Brazza: Une mort mystérieuse." Mondes et Cultures, 49, 4 (1989):668-74).

CONCESSIONARY COMPANIES
French Equatorial Africa... was a huge and completely undeveloped territory... The first years after French takeover saw little activity other than episodic and uregulated trading. By the end of the nineteenth century, the government decided that the only way to speed development and avoid anarchy was to parcel out Gabon, the Moyen-Congo and Oubangui-Chari - territories later joined with Chad to form the AEF - to private companies. In 1899, 40 'concessionary companies' won control over 700,000 square kilometers (of the 900,000 represented by the AEF). Concessions ranged from 1200 to 140,000 square kilometers. In return for a bond, nominal annual rent, 15 per cent of profits and supplementary contributions to the cost of setting up customs posts and telegraph lines, the companies obtained a monopoly on ivory and rubber trading and a free hand to exploit their land for 30 years. After the end of the period, the companies would receive legal title to lands which they had effectively developed. Promises of final settlement were particularly generous - a company could hope to get 100 hectares of land, for instance, for having domesticated a single elephant. (Aldrich, Greater France, p. 193).
The policy of issuing patents to concessionary companies signified the government's own inability or unwillingness to create a modern economy for the AEF. The project also harked back to the charter companies which had developed colonies in the 1600s. Furthermore, the strategy paralleled plans by Britain and Germany to use private companies in eastern Africa. Major French firms, however, showed little interest in investing in equatorial Africa and were notably absent among concessionary companies set up for the AEF. Capital came mostly from colonists and medium-sized trading companies already involved in the region; foreign capital, especially from Belgium, was significant. Investors hoped for handsome profits, especially after the much vaunted Congo-Ocean railway opened. High hopes were not realized. A decade after the companies were founded, only seven paid dividends to shareholders. Ten disappeared completely by 1904, and at the end of the 30-year concession period, only eight remained. Delays in building the railway, the costs and distances involved in porterage, unhealthy conditions in tropical forests, difficulties in finding labour, and the international economic climate stifled development. European traders and entrepreneurs were slow in coming to the AEA; the European population grew from 800 in 1900 to just over 2000 a decade later. Production of ivory, previously a profitable export, declined from 210 tons in 1905 to 97 tons 15 years later. Rubber production stagnated from the turn of the twentieth century until the First World War. The only bright spot was the production of tropical hardwoods, particularly mahogany, which rocketed from 2000 tons in 1898 to 150,000 in 1913; commercial forestry was confined largely to Gabon, which consequently became a more valuable possession than the Moyen-Congo and Oubangui-Chari. (Aldrich, Greater France, p. 193).
Scandalous treatment of Africans horrified at least some sectors of French opinion. One of the worst single incidents was the locking up of 45 women in Lobaye [and then Bangui] in 1905 to force them and their menfolk to work for a concessionary company; most of the women died. At M'Poko, the murder of at least a thousand African workers led to indictments of 236 persons; most got off, and the affair was hushed up. Workers were regularly coerced into labour, and beaten with chains and whips to ensure their obedience and productivity. (Aldrich, Greater France, p. 194).
The concessionary regime was manifestly a failure. In the interwar years, journalists and travelers, such as André Gide, revealed mistreatment of indigenes. An official report in 1925 stated that the concessionary companies had left the AEF as poor as they had found it. By the 1930s, ivory reserves were thoroughly depleted. In some regions of the AEF, supplies or rubber, a prime export, had been exhausted. The Depression caused a crash in the price and demand for rubber; in any case, Southeast Asian rubber provided unbeatable competition for African producers. (Aldrich, Greater France, p. 194).
The economy of the AEF showed limited diversification. The standard of living for the African population probably declined during the concessionary regime. The companies' actions in the first years of the system have been characterized as an 'economy of pillage' marked by human exploitation and environmental depredation. Only by the late 1920s and 1930s, as concessions expired and government capital replaced private funds, the logging industry stabilized, and the volume of exports and imports grew, did the AEF really develop a 'proper' imperialistic economy capable of expansion and profit-making. (Aldrich, Greater France, p. 195).

ALEINICK

Aleinick, Léon. Survey of vocational training and technical education in the Central African Republic. ORT Federation, Dept. of Technical Assistance, 1967.

ALEXANDER

Alexander, Doub. "Looking for more friends: having stayed in the French orbit since independence in 1960, the Central African Republic now wants to fly the roost, for greener pastures." New African, 1 October, 2002. (Around Africa: CAR).

ALEXIS (colonization, exploration, history)

Alexis, Fr. Le Congo Français. Paris: Mangin, 1892. 232p.
Alexis, Fr. Soldats et Missionaires au Congo de 1891 à 1896. Paris: Desclée de Brower, 1896. 240p.

ALIS (colonization, military, exploration, history)

Alis, Harry. A la conquête du Tchad. Paris: Hachette, 1891. 296p.
Alis, Harry. Nos Africains. Paris: Hachette, 1894. 568p.

ALLAFRICA.com (news, etc.)
Note: AllAfrica aggregates and indexes content from over 125 African news organizations, plus more than 200 other sources, who are responsible for their own reporting and views. Articles and commentaries that identify allAfrica.com as the publisher are produced or commissioned by AllAfrica.

http://allafrica.com/stories/200508220920.html

http://allafrica.com/centralafricanrepublic
Note: From the publisher of the former Africa News print newsletter.
Cf. "Central African Republic: Red Cross Distributes Non-Food Items to Bangui
Flood Victims." IRIN, 22 August 2005.

Cf. www.topix.net/world/central-african-republic

Cf. "Central African Republic: Mission to Flood-Affected Areas Planned, Official Says." AllAfrica.com, 14 Oct 2005.
The government of the Central African Republic may send a mission to flood affected areas outside the capital, Bangui, to assess the agricultural damage caused by floods that swept parts of the country...

ALLEGRET (literature, travel, social conditions, colonial history, etc.)

Allegrét, Marc. Carnets du Congo. Voyage avec Gide. Paris: Presses du C.N.R.S., 1987. 295pp. Notes taken during a trip to Equatorial Africa with André Gide in 1925-1926.

ALLEN

Allen, W. "Risking a Life to Stop Poaching." St. Louis Post Dispatch, 23 October 1991, p. 1.

ALLIANCE POUR LA DÉMOCRATIE ET LE PROGRÈS Cf. ADP

Five minor partners in the government coalition, including the Alliance pour la démocratie et le progrès (ADP), pulled out in early December [1994] (although some of their cabinet members remained) in protest at Mr Patassé's [constitutional] proposals. They announced they would campaign for a "No" vote. An ADP spokesman said their principal concerns were the rule change allowing a president to serve three six-year-terms (instead of two, as previously) which they fear could be exploited by Mr Patassé to stay in office until well into the new century. The ADP felt that the presiding judge and assistant judge of the constitutional court [see below], who would be the arbiter in any future controvery over interpretation of the constititution and potentially one of the few constraints on a powerful president, should be elected by fellow judges and not appointed by the executive. The ADP was also worried that the new constitution would give the president too much power over the prime minister, making the head of the government a stooge. Finally, the ADP resented Mr Patassé's decision to drop the clause stipulating that the president must be a person of high moral standing. Sceptical observers might wonder why Mr Patassé felt this necessary. (EIU Country Report, "Central African Republic," 1st Quarter 1995, p. 22)

ALMANAC OF POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT ONLINE
Almanac of Politics and Government Online - Central African Republic Page
http://www.polisci.com/world/nation/CT.htm
Note: Country information, legislature, cabinet, reserve bank, political parties, local government, U.S. Ambassadors. Online version of the annual print and cd-rom product.

ALMANACH.be Cf. WEBSITE OF DYNASTIES OUTSIDE OF EUROPE
http://www.almanach.be/search/c/index.htm
www.almanach.be/signIn/signIn.aspx?ReturnUrl=%2fsearch%2fc%2fcentralafricanrepublic.html
Central Africa
* Bangassou: The state of Bangassou, sometimes called Sultanate, was formed by the Bandia clan of the Azende tribe who were also founders of the States of Rafai and Zemio, in ...
* Central African Empire: Formerly known as Oubangui Chari, this former French colony adopted the name of Central African Republic on 1/12/1958 and achieved full independence on 13/8/1960. On 1/1/1966, Colonel Jean-Bedel Bokassa ...
* Central African Republic: A settlement of Bantu [sic: incorrect] tribes through centuries, the French gained control in the late 19th century to the region then named Oubangui-Chari ...
* Oubangui-Chari
* Rafai: under development
* Zemio: under development
* Ubangi-Shari

ALOUBA

...the very mention of Alouba would launch eloquent descriptions about the rich elephant meat and fat that Mpiemu once consumed, uninhibited by contemporary state and conservation-project restrictions. This nostalgia for a past prosperity, embodied in stories of Alouba and elephant meat, is certainly not unique to Mpiemu tellers of doli [the past]. Nostalgia for a past prosperity (real or imaginary) under colonial rule is common elsewhere in Africa. In this context, this nostalgia speaks to a discourse of lost access to forest resources and to opportunities echoes that of earlier European commentators, but Mpiemu reshaped it to express their own concerns about participating in a global economy that would allow them to accumulate clothing, cooking pots, and other consumer goods. In this sense, the nostalgic reminiscences positioned tellers of doli in relation to their pasts and made claims to truth about the dearth of present-day opportunities to use elephants and other game as people had in the past.

ALTAPEDIA ONLINE
www.atlapedia.com/online/countries/centafri.htm

AMAYE (history, religion, missions, education)
Note: history of Catholic education in Ubangi-Shari, C.A.R.

Amaye, Maurice, and P. Soumille. “De l’intérêt des sources missionaires pour l’histoire générale.” In Recherches centrafricaine: Problèmes et perspectives de la recherche historique. Table Ronde, ASOM, CHEAM, IHPOM. No. 18 (1984):104-36. Aix-en-Province: Institut d’Histoire des Pays d’Outre-mer, Université de Province.

Amaye, Maurice. “Les missions catholiques et la formation de l’élite administrative
et politique de l’Oubangui-Chari de 1920 ? 1958.” 2 vols. Thèse de 3e cycle. Université d’Aix-En-Provence, 1984. IHPOM. 876p.

Amaye, Maurice. Bibliographique signalétique sur les missions chrétiennes en Oubangui-Chari, des origines à nos jours. (A Descriptive Bibliography Pertaining to Christian Missions in Ubangi-Shari, from their Origin to the Present Day) Aix-en-Provence, France: Universite¢ d’Aix-en-Provence, IHPOM, 1981.

Amaye, Maurice. "Barthélemy Boganda et le Projet des Etats-Unis d'Afrique Centrale d'Expression Française." Bangui: 1985. Manuscript. 15p.

Amaye, Maurice. "1889-1909, Bondjo, Peuple dit anthropophage. Histoire des Premières Resistances anti-coloniales en Centrafrique." Bangui: 35p.

AMBASSADE DE FRANCE Cf. FRANCE

Ambassade de France, New York. U.S. Service de presse de d'information. The Central African Republic, hour of independence. New York: 1960. 28p. illus. 27 cm.

Ambassade de France à Bangui, ed. Centrafrique: Notice d'information à l'usage des assistants techniques. Paris: Ministère de la coopération et du développement, Département de l'information et de la documentation, 1991. 104p., illus. Bibliogr. pp. 97-104. Confidentiel. Cf. FRANCE

Ambassade de France en République centrafricaine, Service de coopération et d'action culturelle. La coopération française en Centrafrique. Bangui: Ambassade de France en République centrafricaine, Service de coopération et d'action culturelle, 2000. 48 p. 22 x 28 cm.

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF PETROLEUM GEOLGISTS Cf. AAGP

RSM Production Corporation of Denver, Colorado, USA, has been granted exclusive onshore oil and gas exploration and production license on November 27, 2000 covering 55,125 square kilometers (13,615,875 acres) in the northeastern portion of the Central African Republic (CAR) and is presently undergoing an extensive 2-D geophysical exploration program using state of the art processing technology and utilizing the geophysical gravity data obtained by RSM. The license area in the CAR covers parts of the Doba-Doseo-Salamat sub-basins that straddle the border between CAR and Chad. The Chadian part of the Doba-Doseo sub-basin immediately across the border from CAR contains three (3) large world-class oil fields and a number of smaller but commercial oil fields that may develop into larger fields with additional drilling which is anticipated. Since the inception of exploratory drilling in Chad through 1986, a total of 29 exploratory wells were drilled, 10 of which tested positive for hydrocarbons, mostly oil. Between 1988 and 1996, Exxon, (Esso) focused its efforts on the Doba Basin and drilled 14 more wells, 11 of which resulted as potential oil discoveries with a 78.6 % success ratio. Proven presently recoverable reserves for the Doba Basin are approximately three (3) billion barrels of recoverable oil. (American Association of Petroleum Geologists, aapg.confex.com/aapg/paris2005/techprogram/A98405.htm)

AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

Weber, Neal A. Neal Albert, Murl Deusing, James L. James Lippitt Clark, and American Museum of Natural History. 1947-1948. Central African Expedition. Central African Expedition of the American Museum of Natural History (1947-1948). 1 videocassette (500 min.): si., col. ; 3/4 in. New York: American Museum of Natural History.

Abstract: Filmed during AMNH Central African Expedition, 1948. The film material taken on the AMNH Central African Expedition, 1947-1948, is unedited, raw footage. The five-month-long expedition, led by James Lippitt Clark, AMNH director of preparation and installation, is well-documented in field notes and reports. It is not reflected in the film that the expedition moved haphazardly back and forth among the countries visited: Kenya, Uganda, Belgian Congo (now Zaire), and French Equatorial Africa (now Chad, Gabon, Congo, and the Central African Republic).... A control file in the AMNH Film Archives correlates this material to shot-by-shot descriptions of the film. The material was filmed by Murl Deusing, who also worked on the Walt Disney nature films of the 1950s. Views of the following birds are included: weaverbirds (nest building); white-backed vultures and Ruppell's vultures (gliding on air currents and feeding); ostriches (running); rory bustards (feeding); crowned cranes (feeding and long shot of courtship display); ground hornbills (feeding); flamingoes; hawks; kites; hammerheads; cattle egrets; pelicans; cormorants; anhingas; white storks (European birds wintering in Africa); marabou storks (feeding); and geese. Because the material is poorly organized and unedited, bird footage from other films in the Archives would better serve the researcher. The footage of mammals includes several scenes filmed at the Government Elephant Training Center in Cangara Na Bodia, Belgian Congo (now Zaire), where young elephants are domesticated and trained: the elephants are corralled, fed and bathed; one juvenile elephant is laid down with great difficulty and given topical medication. There are also many scenes of a wide variety of animals grazing in the plains. Other mammals seen are: hippopotamuses, defassa waterbucks, impalas, Ankole cattle, hyenas, L'Hoest's monkeys, Thomson's gazelles, wildebeests, zebras, topis (some aggressive behavior), goats, cape eland, colobus monkeys, vervet monkeys, kob, blackbacked and sidestriped jackals, giraffes, warthogs, Cape buffaloes, bat-eared foxes, lions, black rhinoceroses, oryx, hartebeests, southern reedbucks, and dikdiks. The African peoples included in the film [include]... Zande, N'Sakkara, with some unidentified people in Zaire and some others who apear to be Mangbetu... [a] section of the film depicts peoples of what is now the Central African Republic and was then part of French Equatorial Africa. Natives of the village of Birao use a huge mortar and pestle; also seen are their cone on cylinder houses, some with animal paintings on the stucco walls, and personal adornment including beaded hairdresses (close-ups), nose and ear ornaments, cicatrices, and coin necklaces. Zande people near Zamio process cassava from root to flour (close-ups), use mortar and pestle; and Zande men weave mats (close-ups) and Zande women wear leaves and cloth pelvic aprons. N'Sakkara people of Bangassou thatch a roof, carve a wooden bowl, play bao or a similar board game, strip reeds for weaving, make a storage basket, play with a hoop, make mats, plaster a house, use mortar and pestle, grind grain into flour between two stones, make jewelry, work wood with a lathe, and winnow and grind termites for food. Neal Albert Weber, the expedition's entomologist, conducted extensive research in the field; footage of his study of ants and termites comprise a large part of this film. Weber himself appears in the film sucking up ants and termites with a hose, collecting others with a funnel, and "cooking" them with his fireless cooker. There is also footage of various types of ant nests, bivouacs (large knots of ants clinging to one another), siafu or driver ants (nesting sites, individuals, close-ups, and long shots of marching columns, and large larva sacs), termites (with wings and without) and termite queens, termite nests (on the ground, in thorn trees, opened and unopened gauls or carton nests), stalkeyed flies, cassava grasshoppers (molting, copulating), a scarab beetle, and close-ups of a tree snail and of millipedes. A turtle, a python, and a gold and green frog are also seen. (diglib1.amnh.org/resources/bibliography/bibliographies/mammalia2.htm)

AMERICAN PUBLIC HEALTH ASSOCIATION

American Public Health Association, Division of International Health Programs.
Feasibility study: rural health delivery service, République centrafricaine. Washington: American Public Health Association, Division of International Health Programs, 1976. 57p. 30 cm.

AMICALE DES MÉTIS

Apart from a small branch of the Amicale des Métis organized in Gabonais at Bangui and revived sporadically by a few young Oubangien métis under Antoine Darlan, no other associations were formed until 1937. At that time Gandji rallied together the young Oubangien civil servants and employees in an Amicale Oubanguienne, with the purpose of raising the prestige of the Oubanguiens to override the control of the higher posts by non-Oubanguiens. (Ballard, “Political Parties,” p. 148 and fn. 46)

AMICALE OUBANGUIENNE

in [circa] 1937... Gandji rallied together the young Oubangien civil servants and employees in an Amicale Oubanguienne, with the purpose of raising the prestige of the Oubanguiens to override the control of the higher posts by non-Oubanguiens. Among the leaders in the Amicale Oubanguienne were Pierre Indo, Antoine Darlan, Bernard Condomat, Jean-Baptiste Songomali, and Benoit Mombéto, all of whom were important in political activity after 1945 and all of whom were from riverain tribes. (Ballard, “Political Parties,” p. 148 and fn. 46)

AMIEL

Amiel, General Henri. B.M.2. Memorial d'un Bataillon de Marche de la France Libre, Aout 1940-Nov. 1945. Paris: Imprimerie Cedocar, 1981. 415p.

AMIET

Amiet, P., M. Vignal, and H. Tournier. "L'expérience de développement rural en Ouham." Promotion rurale, 1 (Jan-Feb 1965):6-18; and 2 (Mar-Apr 1965):7-15; and 3 (May-Jun 1965):7-29.

AMIN

"Statement by M. Ruhul Amin, Counsellor Permanent Mission of Bangladesh to the United Nations at the Security Council on the situation in the Central African Republic, New York, 21 September 2001." www.un.int/bangladesh/images/sc/st/210901car.htm

Thank you very much, Mr. President, for convening this public meeting on a situation that requires continued Council attention and engagement.
I shall first address issues of direct and immediate concern to the Security Council. I refer to regional threats to peace and security in the Central African Republic. As the Secretary-General reports, putschists who have fled the country have taken refuge in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The Democratic Republic of the Congo is an embattled country, and it would not be difficult for them to mobilize resources to cross the border and threaten Bangui. The Council should take the steps at its disposal to secure the apprehension of the chief instigators of the coup attempt, or at least to prevent them from infiltrating. We are told also that some of the putschists are present among the refugees, which makes the situation and the threat still more serious.
We have also been informed about the proliferation of arms in the subregion, in particular in the areas bordering Equateur province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, controlled by the Front de libération du congo (FLC) and the Mouvement pour la libération du Congo (MLC) of Jean-Pierre Bemba. I believe that the Council will have to find ways and means to address this threat.
The Central African Republic is now in a situation of crisis that requires an immediate increase in the levels of external assistance. That is the central message that my delegation reads in the report of the Secretary-General. The situation is described in terms of sharp political tension and a troubling lack of security. The question before us as the Security Council is what we can and should do. We recognize, of course, that these socio-economic and political aspects are not strictly within the Council’s competence, and that is why, in our last presidential statement, the Council called upon the other relevant actors — in particular, the Bretton Woods institutions — to consider the special situation in the Central African Republic. We are encouraged to note from the World Bank representative that some $17 million have been allocated for HIV/AIDS. That responds to a very urgent need. We have also noted the intention of the World Bank to provide $8 million for poverty eradication. However, we are deeply disturbed to learn that the World Bank has suspended disbursements to the Government of the Central African Republic for non-payment of amounts due. This is not a criticism of the World Bank; possibly that amount is due. What we are concerned about is to find alternative resources for the survival of a very fragile Government.

AMIS D'AFRIQUE cf. NGOs, HIV/AIDS, HEALTH, JAPANESE RELATIONS
The Director-General and President of Amis d'Afrique is Mizuko Tokunaga

"Japan provides US $630,000 to fight HIV/AIDS." NAIROBI, 2 Nov 2001 (IRIN) - The Government of the Central African Republic (CAR) and Japanese NGO Amis d'Afrique (Friends of Africa) signed a letter of agreement on Wednesday for a US $630,000 grant in support of reinforcing HIV/AIDS responses in communities in the CAR, the World Bank announced from Bangui. The grant will finance activities in the fight against HIV/AIDS in local communities by reinforcing a number of ongoing interventions undertaken by Amis d'Afrique. The grant, has four components: medical care and treatment; home-based care and family support; information, education and communication and prevention in schools and youth centers; and capacity-building with evaluation and monitoring. "The grant supports an innovative approach of contracting NGOs and other community groups in the delivery of HIV/AIDS interventions in the CAR," the World Bank reported. "Amis d'Afrique, the grant implementing agency, established in 1993 to assist in the fight against HIV/AIDS, has been building capacity at the local level," it continued. "In addition, the agency will contract other NGOs to deliver information, education and communication programmes in the schools or to train traditional healers in HIV/AIDS care and support in order to reach a wider segment of the country." The World Bank Vice-President for the Africa Region, Callisto Madavo, said the grant "provides an opportunity for meaningful partnership among the government, the World Bank, Amis d'Afrique and the civil society in the common goal of mitigating the impact of HIV/AIDS on the economy and curbing the epidemic in the country". Director-General and President of Amis d'Afrique Mizuko Tokunaga said he was "grateful that our activity can be expanded by working together with the World Bank project" in light of the increasing number of HIV/AIDS patients. The World Bank estimates that annual per capita growth in half the countries of sub-Saharan Africa is falling by 0.5 percent to 1.2 percent as a direct result of AIDS and that by 2010, per capita GDP in some of the hardest hit countries may drop by as much as 8 percent. Annual basic care and treatment for a person with AIDS (without antiretroviral drugs) can cost as much as two to three times per capita GDP in the poorest countries. Today, 36 million people live with HIV/AIDS, more than 95 percent of them in developing countries. Over 21 million people have so far died, three million of them in 2000 alone. AIDS is now the leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa.

AMITIÉ HOSPITAL IN BANGUI cf. CHINA

The first person to pay the price for the president's new-found zeal for clean government was André Zanafei Toumbona, health minister in the government of Mr Patassé's first prime minister, Jean-Luc Mandaba. [Toumbona] was arrested in mid-August [2005] on suspicion of having stolen CFAfr26.9m ($55,000) in Chinese aid money intended for the Amitié hospital in Bangui. The hospital director, accused of paying the money into an account in the minister's name at a Bangui bank, was also detained. It is too early to say whether the allegations are true....By late August Mr Tombona was ill in [a] hospital in Bangui himself, and his lawyers requested permission for his transfer for treatment to Paris. (EIU Country Report, "Central African Republic," 4th Quarter 1995, p. 21)

AMMI-OZ

Amni-Oz, Moshe. "Le pronunciamiento du Chef d'État-major Centrafricain." Revue française d'études politiques africaines. 149 (May 1978):45-61.

AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL

Amnesty International Report. London: Amnesty International Publications.

Amnesty International, International Secretariat. Central African Republic: Five Months of War Against Women. London: International Secretariat, 2004. 31p. Includes bibliography.

AMORUSO

Amoruso, David. "Profile of Victor Bout." Gangsters Incorporated, Visited 10 November, 2005, gangstersinc.tripod.com/VictorBout.html
Victor Anatoliyevich Bout was born on January 13, 1967 in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. Not much is known about his early life but at one point he joined the military and after training began working at a Russian military base at Vitebsk as a navigator. After a few years he... began training commando troops of the Russian airforce. In 1991 Bout graduated from Moscow's Institute of Foreign Languages and could speak six languages fluently... became a translator for the Russian army in Angola, Africa... that same year, 1991, the military base where Bout was working was disbanded as a result of the collapse of the Soviet Union... Bout started Transavia Export Cargo Company which in 1993 helped supply the Belgian peacekeeping forces in Somalia... Bout...made contacts with [the Northern Alliance in Afghanistan which was fighting the Taliban and sold them lots of weapons]. From 1993 to 1995 Bout supplies many Afghani groups tons of ammunition and supplies. With the money he made from these deals, allegedly $50 million, Bout expanded his empire. In March 1995 Bout started a company in the Belgian city Oostende (Ostend) [named] Trans Aviation Network Group... main customer, the Afghani Northern Alliance, was pushed out of power by the Taliban. In May of 1995 a plane filled with weapons and ammunition destined for the Afghani Northern Alliance was intercepted by the Taliban. The crew was held until [16 August 1996] when they managed to escape. Not long after, Bout had a new customer, the Taliban... he had sold them weapons before... in Ostend, Belgium he bought a mansion and several expensive cars... [but] in 1997 Belgian newspapers published reports about Bout's shady operations and when Belgian authorities started looking into his business Bout moved to the United Arab Emirates... founded [a company] in 1995, based first in Sharjah and later in 2001 in Ajman [which became] his base of operations. The U.A.E. was...a major financial center and a crossroads for East and West trade and with its bank secrecy laws and free trade zones...In 1995 Bout founded Air Ces in Liberia... U.S. and U.N. officials say that Bout airlifted thousands upon thousands of assault rifles, grenade and missile launchers and millions of ammunition rounds into Africa. Clients of Bouts' companies Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Libya, Congo-Brazzaville, Rwanda, South Africa, Sierra Leone, Swaziland and Uganda.... Most of the weapons came from Bulgaria [to which Bout made] numerous trips between 1995 and 2000. In 2000 Bout was seen visiting six weapons factories there. Between July 1997 and September 1998 Bout organized 38 flights with weapons shipment worth an estimated $14 million to African nations. In the summer of 200 four of Bout's planes landed in Liberia with... helicopters, armored vehicles, anti-aircraft guns and automatic rifles... Bout was protected by high E.A.U. royalty and officials such as Sultan Hamad Said Nassir al-Suwaidi, advisor to the ruler of Sharjah, who [is reputed to own] one of Bout's companies. (David Amoruso, "Profile of Victor Bout." Gangsters Incorporated, Visited 10 November, 2005, gangstersinc.tripod.com/VictorBout.html)

Scherer, Michael. "Dealing with the Merchant of Death." Mother Jones, 20 September 2004, www.motherjones.com/news/update/2004/09/09_413.html
For the war effort in Iraq, the Bush administration has hired at least one company tied to the network of Victor Bout, one of the world's most notorious arms traffickers. The U.S. government has for years kept in its sights one of the world’s most notorious arms traffickers, Victor Bout. Known on both sides of the Atlantic as the "merchant of death," Bout has been implicated in running guns and missiles to combatants across the world, from the Taliban and Northern Alliance in Afghanistan to the UNITA rebels of Angola and the teen-age army of Liberia’s former tyrant, Charles Taylor. He has been blacklisted by the U.S. Treasury from doing any business in the United States, faces an arrest warrant for money laundering in Belgium, and was aggressively pursued by the Clinton administration. "We were trying to take him out of business," says Witney Schneidman, an Africa expert who worked in the State Department at the time.
But now the Bush administration has hired at least one company tied to Bout's network for the war effort in Iraq. Records obtained by Mother Jones show that as recently as August, Air Bas, a company tied to Bout and his associates, was flying charter missions under contract with the U.S. military in Iraq. Air Bas is overseen by Victor Bout’s brother, Serguei, and his long-time business manager, Richard Chichakli, an accountant living in Texas; in the past, payments for Air Bas have gone to a Kazakh company that the United Nations identifies as "a front for the leasing operations of Victor Bout’s aircraft."
Concerns about Bout’s work for the United States date back to May, when Senator Russ Feingold asked the Pentagon and the State Department to scour their files for any evidence of contracts with companies tied to Bout. An inquiry conducted by the State Department found, according to a State Department source, that "there were allegations that raised our concerns, and we shared those concerns with the Department of Defense." Months later, however, the Pentagon has yet to respond, and officials there would not say whether they are looking into the State Department’s concerns.
Air Bas, meanwhile, has continued to fly U.S. military missions into Baghdad and the northern Iraqi air base of Balad, landing most recently on August 4, according to refueling records kept by the Defense Energy Support Center (DESC). The records make no mention of the specific Pentagon unit that employs Air Bas, though they confirm, according to the DESC, that the flights have been approved by military commanders for "official government purposes." Officials with the Army and Air Force said they knew of no contract with Air Bas; Central Command and the Marines did not return Mother Jones’ calls. "We deal solely with the prime [contractors]," says Cynthia Smith, an Army spokeswoman. "We don’t have any control over who they get to subcontract."
Chichakli, for his part, says Air Bas "is a contractor of the United States Army. That is something I don’t think I will discuss with you." He says Victor Bout has no ties to the company. According to the U.N., Air Bas was established in 2002 in Texas and quickly set up offices in the United Arab Emirates, in the same building where Victor Bout had once operated another airline, Air Cess. As an umbrella company for several Bout enterprises, Air Cess had become notorious during the 1990s for its role funneling weapons and cargo to militias in Angola. Both Serguei Bout and Chichakli helped run Air Cess, according to U.N. reports. After the company went out of business, Chichakli and Serguei Bout founded Air Bas, purchasing several Air Cess planes. The U.N. concluded in a 2003 report on arms trafficking in Somalia that Air Bas was a "front operation" that the Bout family was using to maintain a presence in the Persian Gulf.
Rumors of Bout doing work for the Bush Administration have circled through the diplomatic and intelligence communities for a few years. Following the 2002 arrest in Belgium of a Bout associate, Sanjivan Ruprah, the Netherlands-based International Peace and Information Service reported that Ruprah’s seized laptop computer held a letter to a Federal Bureau of Investigation contact detailing plans for Bout to exploit ties to the Northern Alliance to help the U.S. efforts to overthrow the Taliban. "Victor and I have discussed various aspects of coordination with yourselves regarding Afghanistan," Ruprah wrote to the FBI, according to the report. "We have very good relationships [with anti-Taliban forces]." The FBI did not respond to requests for comment.
In late 2002, an investigator for the Washington-based Center for Public Integrity reported that Chichakli had told him that Bout had been flying U.S. troops into Afghanistan. In an interview with Mother Jones, Chichakli denied saying anything about a Bout role in Afghanistan. Victor Bout is believed to be living in Russia, where he has been isolated since 2000 when international publicity of his activities forced him into seclusion. Born in Tajikistan, he is known to carry at least five passports and use as many aliases. Speaking from his offices in Richardson, Texas, Chichakli said the continued concern over Bout’s activities was unfounded. He declined to put Mother Jones in touch with Bout. "Victor said if anybody calls you, unless it’s Jesus himself, with an ID, don’t bring him to me," Chichakli said. (Scherer, Michael. "Dealing with the Merchant of Death." Mother Jones, 20 September 2004, www.motherjones.com/news/update/2004/09/09_413.html)

AMSALLAM (forestry, economics)

Amsallem, Isabelle et al. eds. Sustainable management of tropical forests in Central Africa: in search of excellence. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2003. 126p. 30 cm.

ANAGNOSTELLIS, D. cf. ARSLANIAN, ANTWERP, DIAMONDS, SODIAM
Dmitri Anagnostellis, a Greek tycoon who became involved with Bokassa in business ventures to export diamonds from the CAR, and whose wife Andrée served as Bokassa's secretary from 1966-1974

Bokassa succeeding in siphoning off some of the revenue from [diamonds], but it was hardly sufficient to satisfy his wants. By 1969 he had saved only enough to purchase Villemorant, his first château in France. He knew that the diamond business offered him the surest road to wealth and he also knew that it would have to be deregulated in order to achieve his goal. Consequently, the all-too-honest Malendoma was shuffled out of the economics portfolio and the careful supervision of the trade began to lapse. In 1969 a new company, Centradiam, made its appearance on the Bangui diamond market. It was not part of the established consortium, whose monopoly was now terminated. Bokassa himself, it turned out, was a major shareholder in the company, whose principal financial backing came from the Anagnostellis brothers - Greek tycoons with an unsavoury background. Andrée, the wife of Dmitri Anagnostellis, actually served as Bokassa's secretary between 1966 and 1974. Dmitri represented Arslanian, the Antwerp-based dimond company that was known as Sodiam. (Titley, Dark Age, p. 74, citing Interview, former official of the Taillerie nationale de diamant, Bangui, March 1990). Centradiam paid no taxes, license fee, or anything of the kind, and it took little imagination to figure out where much of the profit was going. (Titley, Dark Age, p. 74).

ANANISSOH (literature)

Ananissoh, Théo. Territoires du Nord. Roman. Paris: L'Harmattan, 106p.

ANB-BIA NEWS SUPPLEMENTS
http://ospiti.peacelink.it/anb-bia.html

ANDERSON, A.
Missionary Pastor Arthur Anderson of The Sudan Mission served at Abba in Ubangi-Shari and kept notes about the mission's work there. Excerpts are cited in Christianson, For the Heart of Africa, p. 120, etc.

Cf. Anderson, "Notes about work in Abba and nearby regions of Ubangi-Shari." 16 November 1936, etc., cited in Christianson, For the Heart of Africa, p. 120, etc.

"When the Weinhardts left Abba, it was decided to sent as replacements Pastor and Mrs. Arthur Anderson, who had come to Mboula in June 1931, and also Miss Hilda Youngren, who had come to the field in December, 1930. The notes on Abba Station kept by the Andersons over a period of six years have some encouraging reports. The following excerpts trace the growth of the work there." (Christianson, For the Heart of Africa, p. 96.)

ANDERSON, Mrs. A.

ANDERSON, L.

Anderson, Lydia. Nigeria, Cameroon, and the Central African Republic. New York: Frank Watts, 1981. 66p. 23 cm.

PRE-HISTORY
People probably lived in the CAR before 1000 B.C., but we know little about their early history. Huge stone monuments weighing three to four tons, found along the banks of streams near Bouar, tell of an ancient culture. No written records exist. (Anderson, Central African Republic, p. 60).

POST-WORLD WAR II
After World War II, during which the [colony of Ubangi-Shari] served as an important base for the Free French under Charles de Gaulle, the colony was granted its own assembly, French citizenship [sic: misleading], and representation in the French parliament. Political parties were formed. Barthélémy Boganda, a former Catholic priest and a prominent political leader, was recognized as a strong voice for African nationalism. He was the country's first prime minister. (Anderson, Central African Republic, p. 61).

BOKASSA AND THE CENTRAL AFRICAN EMPIRE
[On the night of 31 December 1965 - 1 January 1966], Col. Jean-Bédel Bokassa... overthrew Dacko... in a military coup, dissolved the national assembly, and voided the constitution. (Anderson, Central African Republic, p. 61).
Bokassa's regime was marked by unpredictability, frequent cabinet changes, and personal use of power. He ruled by decree. Political opponents were executed or given long prison sentences. Many were accused of treason, arrested, or expelled. In an effort to control crime, Bokassa set harsh terms for thieves: the loss of ears and hands, among others. He ordered prison sentences for "vagabonds," "idlers," and tax evaders. No one knew what to expect next. As a result, after an early upsurge in the economy [cash crops increased...under a development program called "Operation Bokassa"], progress came to a halt. (Anderson, Central African Republic, p. 61).
On [4 December 1976], Bokassa proclaimed Central Africa an Empire and was crowned emperor in an elaborate ceremony costing over $25 million. He donned a crown of 2,000 diamonds, sat on a gold-plated throne, and transported his retinue in a fleet of 50 Mercedes cars. However, of 2,000 invited guests, only 400 showed up. (Anderson, Central African Republic, p. 62).
Becoming increasingly unstable, Bokassa personally led his troops in beatings of convicted thieves and, in 1978, was accused of taking part in the killing of 100 students who had rioted to protest an order to wear uniforms made by members of the royal family. (Anderson, Central African Republic, p. 62).
A government-in-exile was formed and, in September 1979, with the help of the French government and three hundred of its troops, Bokassa was overthrown in a bloodless coup while he was visiting in Libya. Former president Dacko, who had served as Bokassa's personal advisor, was returned to power [by the French] and the country was renamed the Central African Republic. Bokassa was granted asylum by [the] Ivory Coast. (Anderson, Central African Republic, p. 62).
Dacko promised to restore democratic freedoms and called for "national unity." (Anderson, Central African Republic, p. 62).

EDUCATION c. 1980
France did little to prepare the country for independence. Less than one percent of the budget went for education. Poor schools, inadequate health care, and wide unemployment were common. Control was often in the hands of charter companies and their armies [sic], or administrators who lived in France and were unfamiliar with local problems. (Anderson, Central African Republic, p. 62).
A mere 18 percent of its people can read and write [in c. 1980]. Most of the children who go to school attend the primary grades only, where there is one teacher for every 70 students. Only one in ten go on to the 25 high schools or the few technical schools and teacher-training institutes and agricultural college. Jean-Bédel Bokassa University [the University of Bangui], offering courses in law, science, and medicine, was established in Bangui in 1974. About 300 students attend. Some young Central Africans attend college abroad, mostly in France. (Anderson, Central African Republic, p. 59).

EXPORTS c. 1980
Coffee and cotton are the chief crops raised for export. Coffee accounts for about two-fifths of the total; cotton, diamonds, and timber, about one-fifth each. Other cash crops are cocoa, rubber, palm oil products, tobacco, bananas, and groundnuts. Crops depend on good weather. Good weather in 1976 and 1977, combined with better organization and increased world prices, brought exports to $80 million. (Anderson, Central African Republic, p. 63).

ANDRÉ (economics, structural adjustment)

André, Françoise, Union européenne. "Appui au programme d'ajustement structurel" (projet no 7 ACP CA 029): assistance technique suivi de l'exécution budgétaire et réhabilitation de la chaine de la dépense: rapport de fin de mission, 3 juin 1994-31 août 1995. Françoise André. Bruxelles: Agence européenne pour le développement et la santé, 1995. 30 cm.

ANGELIS

Angelis, P., De. Les Componiens en Centrafrique et au Tchad (1966-1988). Bangui: 1989.

ANGOLA

There are... allegations that diamonds from the Angolan rebel group, UNITA, have been laundered through the Bangui bourse.

ANGUETIL

Anguetil, Jacques. L'Artisant createur en République Centrafricaine. Paris: ACCT, 1982. 72p.

ANGOLAPRESS

Cf. "France props CAR in fight against flood impact". AngolaPress 24 August 2005, www.angolapress-angop.ao/noticia-e.asp?ID=368404

"Paris, France, 08/24 - France has donated 25,000 euros for use by non- governmental organisations in the Central African Republic to tackle health risks posed by recent flooding in Bangui, the capital, official sources said. "As a matter of emergency, it`s all about preventing and curbing typhoid, diarrhoea, parasitosis, malaria and respiratory infections," French foreign ministry spokesman Jean-Baptiste Mattei revealed here Monday. Floods, brought about by heavy rains in early August in Bangui, led to the collapse of several houses, leaving a substantial number of residents homeless. Pools of stagnant water left in parts of the city have also been feared as sources of diseases. The World Health Organisation (WHO), UN Children`s Fund (UNICEF), Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies have mobilised to come to the rescue of the victims."

ANGOULÈME BANK Cf. CORRUPTION, DEMAFOUTH-MAFOUTAPA

Mr Patassé's personal adviser, Jean-Jacques Demafouth-Mafoutapa, who negotiated the president's settlement of the embarrassing Angoulème bank affair in 1994. (EIU Country Report, "Central African Republic," 4th Quarter 1995, p. 21)

ANGUIMATE

Included in the cabinet [of Mr Koyambounou in 1995] to handle the awkward public service portfolio is the chairman of the Convention nationale (CN) party, Eloi Anguimate, which draws its support heavily from the large Banda tribe. (EIU Country Report, "Central African Republic," 3rd Quarter 1995, p. 26)

ANGUS REID CONSULTANTS
http://www.angus-reid.com/tracker/index.cfm?fuseaction=viewItem&itemID=5234
Background
(Angus Reid Global Scan) – The former French colony—known as Ubangi-Shari—became independent in 1960. For 33 years, the country was a de-facto dictatorship, ruled in succession by three military commanders. First president David Dacko was overthrown by his cousin Jean-Bédel Bokassa in 1966.
Bokassa established a lavish regime, proclaiming himself as emperor in 1976. As human rights violations proliferated in the Central African Republic, a series of riots led to the death of many civilians. In 1979, the French government backed a coup to remove Bokassa and restore Dacko.
Dacko was overthrown again in 1981 by André Kolingba, who ruled uninterrupted until 1993, when Ange-Félix Patassé won the presidential election representing the Mouvement pour la Libération du Peuple Centrafricain (MLPC—Movement for the Liberation of the Central African People). Patassé became the country’s first civilian president, and won re-election in 1999, defeating Kolingba in a ballot decried by opposition parties as fraudulent.
On Mar. 15, 2003, army general François Bozizé led a coup d’etat to topple the government of Patassé while the president attended a conference in Niger. Bozizé—who had aided Patassé’s government to deal with violent revolts and mutinies in 1996 and 1997—appointed Abel Goumba as vice-president and Célestin Gaoumbale as prime minister in December 2003. Bozizé vowed to oversee a "transitional period" that would eventually lead to presidential and legislative elections in 2005.

2005 Presidential, Parliamentary Elections
In October 2004, voters enlisted in the electoral rolls after the country’s Independent Mixed Electoral Commission (CEMI) established more than 5,000 registration posts. CEMI’s $10.8 million U.S. budget was partially funded by the European Union (EU). Citizens were registered after their age and identity were verified, and received a voter card immediately. Central African Republic nationals living in other African and European nations, as well as the minority Batwa, were able to sign up as well.
On Dec. 5, the country’s voters participated in a referendum on whether to adopt a new constitution. The proposed body of law sought to restore civilian rule in the Central African Republic, reduce the powers of the president, and strengthen the influence of the prime minister and the National Assembly. Preliminary results were released on Dec. 6, suggesting close to 90 per cent of all voters supported the new constitution.
The end of the "transitional period" was to begin with the first round of presidential and National Assembly elections on Jan. 30, 2005. A second round was scheduled for Feb. 27.
Deposed former president Ange-Félix Patassé—currently exiled in Togo—was nominated once again by the Mouvement pour la Libération du Peuple Centrafricain (MLPC—Movement for the Liberation of the Central African People). Patassé’s return to the Central African Republic was uncertain, as he faces corruption and human rights abuses charges.
Former prime minister Jean Paul Ngoupandé of the Parti de l’Unité Nationale (PUN—National Unity Party), current parliamentarian Josué Binoua and former president André Kolingba—who administered the government from 1981 to 1993—also expressed interest in becoming presidential candidates. On Dec. 11, current president François Bozizé announced he would be contending as an independent.

On Dec. 31, the transitional Constitutional Court cleared five candidates to participate in the election, and banned 10 politicians, including Patassé, former prime ministers Martin Ziguele and Ngoupandé, and former defence minister Jean-Jacques Demafouth. Some prospective contenders were blocked for not providing the $10,000 U.S. deposit, not owning a house in their place of residence, or not tendering actual copies of their birth certificates. The list of candidates included Bozizé, former president Kolingba, current vice-president Abel Goumba, lawyer Henri Pouzere and former minister Auguste Boukanga.

On Jan. 5, 2005, Bozizé allowed three more candidates—Ngoupandé, Ziguele and Charles Massi of the Forum Démocratique pour la Modernité (FODEM—Democratic Forum for Modernity)—to run for the presidency. The current head of state said the decision aims to "preserve peace and support from international donor organizations for the electoral process."

On Jan. 7, the government requested the International Criminal Court (ICC) to look into whether war crimes were committed in the country during Patassé’s tenure. The inquiry can only go as far back as 2002, when the tribunal’s jurisdiction began.

On Jan. 24, barred candidates and representatives of the government convened in Libreville, with Gabonese president Omar Bongo acting as a mediator. After the meeting, the list of presidential candidates grew to 11, but Patassé was still not allowed to run. The election was re-scheduled for Mar. 13.

On Feb. 26, campaign activities officially began. Aside from the 11 presidential contenders, 709 candidates—including 152 women—are seeking a seat in the National Assembly.
Voting took place on Mar. 13. Aside from some polling stations that opened late, there were no major problems to report. Bozizé said the election was "a novel event in the Central African Republic, a true democracy is being established." CEMI chairman Jean Willybiro-Sako expressed satisfaction with the apparently large turnout, saying voters "showed patience and discipline in the waiting lines often under a merciless sun."

On Mar. 14, CEMI spokesman René Sakanga-Morouba said the election "went well." Some reports indicated that polling stations in Bangui remained open for several hours as voters waited in line. Some citizens complained about a new procedure, which lists all candidates in a single ballot instead of providing separate papers for each contender.
On Mar. 16, Bozizé dismissed vice-president Goumba—a presidential contender—before final tallies were announced. Government spokesman Alain-George Ngatoua said the vice-presidency was dissolved "because the new constitution does not make provision for the position." Goumba declared he was "disgusted by the way this has been done" saying he learned of the decision through state radio.
A statement from election monitors said some deficiencies "have been pointed out (but) do not amount to irregularities. (...) These elections can henceforth be considered free, reliable, fair and transparent."
On Mar. 22, spokesman Gaston King Mahoutou said Kolingba was the target of a failed assassination attempt, after gunshots were fired outside the candidate’s house. The Interior Ministry deemed the clash a "misunderstanding" between soldiers.
Preliminary results were released on Mar. 23. With just over half of all the votes counted, Bozizé was in first place with 44.6 per cent, followed by Ziguele with 27.3 per cent and Kolingba with 13.5 per cent. Opposition spokesman Joseph Douacle complained about delays in issuing partial tallies, saying, "We all want the results purely and simply annulled."
On Mar. 31, CEMI chief Jean Willybiro Sacko said no contender "has managed to cross the 50 per cent barrier" and scheduled a run-off between the top two candidates for May 1. Bozizé finished in first place with 42.9 per cent of the vote, followed by Ziguele with 23.5 per cent.

On Apr. 3, CEMI announced that 17 candidates had secured a seat in the National Assembly. The remaining 88 legislators will be chosen during the May 1 run-off.
On Apr. 13, CEMI declared that the run-off would be postponed until May 8. No reason for the change of date was provided. On Apr. 21, Ngoupandé and Massi endorsed Bozizé in the run-off.

Run-off voting took place on May 8. CEMI reported that the second round progressed "calmly" in the capital and other regions of the country. The ballot-tallying process began on May 9.

On May 10, early results in five of the districts in Bangui had incumbent Bozizé in the lead. CEMI chairman Sako said turnout for the run-off appeared to be "slightly down" from the 68.27 per cent of the first round.
On May 14, CEMI issued partial results. With 40 per cent of all cast ballots tallied, Bozizé was in first place with almost 60 per cent of the vote, followed by Ziguele with 37 per cent.
Official results were released on May 24. Bozizé was declared the winner with 64.23 per cent of the vote, with Ziguele finishing second with 35.77 per cent. Ziguele conceded defeat, saying the ballot had been a "full expression of the Central African people."
In the National Assembly ballot, the Convergence Nationale "Kwa Na Kwa" (KNK—National Convergence "Kwa Na Kwa") became the top political group with 42 seats. The coalition includes the Parti de l’Unité Nationale (PUN—National Unity Party) and the Mouvement pour la Démocratie et le développement (MDD—Movement for Democracy and Development).

Political Players
President: François Bozizé
Prime minister: Célestin Gaombalet
The president took power in a coup. The legislative branch was dissolved. The new constitution established a five-year presidential term, renewable once.
Legislative Branch: The Assemblée Nationale (National Assembly) will have 105 members, elected to five-year terms in single-seat constituencies.
Results of Last Election:
President - Mar. 13 and May 8, 2005
Mar. 13 May 8
François Bozizé - Independent 42.9% 64.23
Martin Ziguele - Mouvement pour la Libération du Peuple Centrafricain (MLPC—Movement for the Liberation of the Central African People) 23.5% 35.77
André Kolingba - Rassemblement Démocratique Centrafricain (RDC—Central African Democratic Rally) 16.3% --
Jean Paul Ngoupandé - Parti de l’Unité Nationale (PUN—National Unity Party) 5.0% --
Charles Massi - Forum Démocratique pour la Modernité (FODEM—Democratic Forum for Modernity 3.1% --
Abel Goumba - Front Patriotique pour le Progrès (FPP—Patriotic Front for Progress) 2.4% --
Henri Pouzere - Independent 2.0% --
Josué Binoua - Independent 1.4% --
Jean-Jacques Demafouth - Independent 1.1% --
Auguste Boukanga - Union pour la rennaissace et le développement (URD—Union for renewal and development) 0.7% --
Olivier Gabirault - Alliance pour la Démocratie et le Progrès (ADP—Alliance for Democracy and Progress) 0.5% --

National Assembly - Mar. 13 and May 8, 2005
Seats
Convergence Nationale "Kwa Na Kwa" (KNK—National Convergence "Kwa Na Kwa")
Parti de l’Unité Nationale (PUN—National Unity Party)
Mouvement pour la Démocratie et le développement (MDD—Movement for Democracy and Development) 42
Mouvement pour la Libération du Peuple Centrafricain (MLPC—Movement for the Liberation of the Central African People) 11
Rassemblement Démocratique Centrafricain (RDC—Central African Democratic Rally) 8
Parti Social Démocratique (PSD—Social Democratic Party) 4
Front Patriotique pour le Progrès (FPP—Patriotic Front for Progress) 2
Alliance pour la Démocratie et le Progrès (ADP—Alliance for Democracy and Progress) 2
Löndö Association (Association Löndö) 1
• Results of 1999 Election - President
• Results of 1998 Election - Assembly

ANIMALS cf. CLASSIFICATION, ARTIODACTYLES

World Bank, Reversing the Spiral, The Population, Agriculture and Environment Nexus in Sub-Saharan Africa, reveals that the natural environment in the CAR is under pressure, though less so than in many other African countries.... By 1990 a dozen of the country's 208 known mammal species were threatened, as were two bird species and two reptile species. (EIU Country Report, "Central African Republic," 2nd Quarter 1995, p. 25)

[Animals in the dense forest region of southern CAR where the Aka live]
Many of the vertebrate species exploited by the Aka are common throughout the forest. These include porcupine, pangolin, small carnivores such as civet, genet, and mongoose, several [types of] monkeys, and several artiodactyls [even-toed ungulates (hoofed mammals)], principally small and medium-sized duikers and bush pig. (Hudson, "Advancing methods in zooarchaeology," p. 44)

Latin English French
MAMMALS
Aonyx congica Congo clawless otter Loutre à joues blanches du Congo
Atherus africanus Brush-tailed porcupine Athérurue africain
Atilax paludinosus Marsh mongoose Mangouste des marais
Bdeogale nigripes Black-footed mongoose Mangouse à pattes noires
Cephalophus callipygus Peters' duiker Céphalophe à Peters
Cephalophus dorsalis Bay duiker Céphalophe bai
Cephalophus leucogaster White-bellied duiker Céphalophe à ventre blanc
Cephalophus monticola Blue duiker Céphalophe bleu
Cephalophus nigrifons Black-fronted duiker Céphalophe à front noir
Cephalophus sylvicultor Yellow-backed duiker Céphalophe à dos jaune
Cercocebus albigena Grey-cheeked mangabey Cercocèbe à joues grises
Cercocebus galeritus Crested mangabey Cercocèbe à agile
Cercopithecus nictitans Greater white-nosed guenon Hocheur
Cecopithecus cephus De Brazza's guenon Cercopithèque de Brazza
Cercopithecus pogonias Crowned guenon Cercopithèque couronné
Colobus guereza Black and white colobus Colobe guereza
Cricetomys emini African giant rat Rat géant
Dendrohyrax arboreus Tree hyrax Daman d'arbres
Felis aurata Golden cat Chat doré
Funisciurus pyrrhopus Cuvier's tree squirrel Rat palmiste
Genetta servalina Servaline genet Genette servaline
Genetta tigrina Large-spotted genet Genette tigine
Genetta victoriae Giant forest genet Genette géant
Gorilla gorilla Gorilla Gorilla
Herpestes naso Long-nosed mongoose Mangoute à long museau
Hippopotamus amphibius Hippopotamus Hippopotame
Hyemoschus aquatica Water chevrotain Chevrotain aquatique
Hylochoerus meinertzhageni Giant forest hog Hylochère
Loxodonta africana Elephant Eléphant
Lutra maculicollis Spotted-necked otter Loutre à cou tacheté
Manis gigantea Giant pangolin Pangolin géant
Manis tetradactyla Long-tailed pangolin Pangolin à longe queue
Manis tricuspis Tree pangolin Pangolin à écailles tricuspides
Mellivora capensis Ratel Ratel
Nandinia binotata Two-spotted palm civet Nandinie
Neotragus batesi Bates' Pygmy antelope Néotrague de Bates
Orycteropus after Aardvark Oryctérope
Pan troglodytes Chimpanzee Chimpanzé
Panthera pardus Leopard Léopard
Papio anubis Olive baboon Cinocéphale
Perodictius potto Potto Potto
Potamochoerus porcus Red Forest Hog Potomochère
Procolobus badius Red colobus Colobe bai
Protoxerus strangeri Giant forest squirrel Ecureuil
Syncerus caffer Buffalo Buffle
Thryonomys sp. Cane rat Aulacode
Tragelaphus euryceros Bongo Bongo
Tragelaphus spekei Sitatunga Sitatunga
Viverra civetta African civet Civette
Source: Andrew J. Noss, "Duikers, Cables and Nets: A Cultural Ecology of Hunting in a Central African Forest." Ph.D. diss., University of Florida, 1995.

The Ngandu [Bantu people who live in the Lobaye region] moved into the area only 120 years ago... the Aka [pygmies] depend heavily on Ngandu for manioc and other village goods... The Ngandu... keep chickens, muskovy ducks, goats, sheep, and dogs. Men hunt occasionally with crossbows, steel-wire snares, and guns for monkeys, a variety of small duikers, wild pigs, bongos and other animals. All Ngandu grow at least some coffee as a cash crop. Ngandu men occasionally hunt, but they receive the majority of their meat through trade with Aka. The Aka provide the Ngandu with game meat, honey, koko [leaves], and other forest products, and the Ngandu provide the Aka with manioc and other village products. There are a government-sponsored school, dispensary, and police station in the village. (Hewlett, Intimate Fathers, p. 43-44).

REPTILES

ANIMALINFO.org
www.animalinfo.org/country/centafre.htm

ANNALES APOSTOLIQUES cf. CATHOLIC CHURCH

The practice by early Catholic missionaries in Ubangi-Shari of procuring children was described as follows in Annales Apostoliques, a journal published by the Holy Fathers, in January 1903:

The purchase (rachat) of a child does not take long to conclude. His master presents him to you, he is summarily examined, and a price is asked [for him]. The seller wants to get as much as possible, [but] the missionary offers as little as possible in order to deliver the largest number [from their fate]. After several minutes, the sale is finished, the payment is made in beads or in powder; a mirror or a fathom (brasse) of cloth are the final gifts. (Oubangui: Esclavage et anthropophagie, pp. 18-21, cited in Guillaume, Du Miel au Café, p. 270).

ANNALES DE LA PROPAGATION DE LA FOI cf. CATHOLIC CHURCH

Beneteau, Father Stanilas. [Article about Ubangian customs "Anvil of the Blacksmith?"]. Annales de la Propagation de la Foi, 92 (1920):121-129.

Anvil of the Blacksmith
The only industry of the Blacks in our regions is forging iron (travail de fer). Their only real profession (métier) is that of the blacksmith. But not just anyone can become a blacksmith; the hereditary profession is habitually the prerogative of the chief's family. There is a long [period of] apprenticeship, which gives rise to the proverb: "It's by forging [iron] that one become a blacksmith." One rarely gains a perfect knowledge of the profession before one is mature, and even for the most able it takes a whole day to give definitive form to an object so simple as the little native hoe. To know how to forge is the height of art. One does not imagine anything above it, it is the limit of industry and the ability of man. (Quoted in Banville, Raconte-moi la Mission, p. 75 [Trans. Bradshaw])

ANNAN Cf. MINURCA, UN SECURITY COUNCIL
UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan
Cf. "Annan calls for peacekeeping extension." IRIN, 3 February 1999.
NAIROBI, 3 Feb 1999 (IRIN) - UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan has recommended that the United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic (MINURCA) should stay on in the country until presidential elections scheduled for the latter half of this year. In his latest report to the Security Council on the mission, Annan said MINURCA “has been and remains a source of much needed stability” in the country and the subregion as a whole, the UN information service reported yesterday. Welcoming a letter addressed to him by President Ange Felix Patasse outlining the government’s commitments to carry out a number of reforms, Annan said they represent an indispensable condition for further progress. According to the Secretary-General, satisfactory action on these commitments could result in the early participation of the opposition, adoption by the National Assembly of a budget and legislation to restructure the armed forces. He suggested an initial extension of the MINURCA mandate for a period of six months until 31 August, subject to a further determination by the Security Council after three months that the government has made acceptable progress in carrying out the reforms.

Cf. "Council urges joint reconciliation efforts." IRIN, 22 March 1999.
NAIROBI, 22 Mar 1999 (IRIN) - The UN Security Council last week called on all political leaders in the CAR to work together towards full implementation of the Bangui Agreements and the National Reconciliation Pact. In a statement, Council President Qin Huasun of China said members also urged the government, in collaboration with all political parties, to take concrete steps to establish a new electoral commission for presidential elections, scheduled for later this year, and to continue efforts to restructure its security forces. The statement was made after the Council received a briefing on the situation in the country by the UN Secretary-General’s Special Representative, Oluyemi Adeniji, who is also head of the UN Mission in the Central African Republic (MINURCA).

"Annan says reforms must go further." IRIN, 19 April 1999.
NAIROBI, 19 Apr 1999 (IRIN) - The Central African Republic has made some moves towards reform but progress has been slow and further action is urgently required, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan reported on Monday. On the plus side, a decree by the government on the creation of the Mixed and Independent Electoral Commission (CEMI) has prepared the ground for presidential elections scheduled for August/September, according to the Secretary-General's report on the UN Mission in the Central African Republic (MINURCA). He also said that "the imminent adoption of the laws on restructuring the armed forces is a major step in the right direction". However, "further action is urgently required for the Government to fully demonstrate adherence to the commitments made to the Secretary-General by President Patassé", the report noted. For instance, the late start in the inauguration of the electoral commission had delayed decisions regarding funding, revision of the electoral register, practical and logistical preparations and even the date of polling. The Secretary-General said that although the situation remained calm and the country was "an island of relative stability" in the region, intense distrust persisted among the country's political leaders and the economic and social situation remained precarious. The report renewed the Secretary-General's appeal to donors to contribute to the restructuring of the armed forces in the Central African Republic, calling it "an important process" which would help stabilise the security situation in the country and the sub-region as a whole. He also appealed for contributions to support the Central African police force, which is receiving training under the MINURCA civilian police component (CIVPOL). The report on MINURCA is to be addressed by the UN Security Council on Wednesday (21 April).

"Annan urges preparations for polls." IRIN, 2 June 1999.
NAIROBI, 2 Jun 1999 (IRIN) - UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan on Tuesday urged the CAR government to expedite its preparations for the presidential election scheduled for later this year. In a report to the Security Council, he said further delays or a reduction in electoral support for CAR may jeopardise the entire purpose of the UN mission, MINURCA. He urged the Council to support the plan submitted by the mission to “ensure an acceptable level of observation of the freedom and fairness” of the election process. “The deployment plans are essential to make the election credible,” he said.
Annan said the delays experienced so far had “seriously impaired” the degree to which MINURCA could assist the process. He also appealed for financial assistance to restructure the armed forces, police and gendarmerie. “Further progress in the establishment of a well-trained and adequately-equipped security force is essential in view of the volatility of the situation within and around the Central African Republic,” he said.

ANNEE POLITIQUE AFRICAINE / SOCIETE AFRICAINE, DAKAR

Année Politique Africaine. See: L’Année Politique Africaine. Dakar: Société Africaine.

ANONYMOUS

Anonymous. "Les Missions catholiques dans le Haut-Congo et l'Oubangui." Dépêche Coloniale Illustrée, 21 (1905):245-260.

Anonymous. "The Repercussions." L'Etendard de la Patrie, 22 May 1995, p. 4.

Anonymous, "Rebels Sign Accord Ending Central African Uprising." Reuters Information Service, Bangui, 24 January 1997.

Anonymous. Le R.P. Raoul Goblet. Paris: Auteuil, 1932.

Anonymous. Expéditions coloniales. Leurs dessours, leurs atrocités." Le Crapouillet (1936):??-??

Anonymous. Mgr. Augouard et l'évagelisation de l'Afrique Centrale. Brazzaville: 1952.

Anonymous. Il primo ventennio della Missione dei Frati Minori Cappuccini di Genova nel Centrafrica (1948-1968). (Les premières vingt années de la Mission des Frères Mineurs Capucins de Gênes en Centrafrique (1948-1968). Geneva: s.d. 1969??

Anonymous. Central African Empire: the Capuchin Missionaries and agricultural development (L'Empire du Centrafrique: les Missionnaires Capuchins et le développement agricole), Standard, 13 August 1978.

Anonymous. Les nouveaux groupes religieux en R.C.A.: une question pour notre foi et notre témoignage chrétien. Bangui: Centre Jean XIII, 1990.

Anonymous (several cartoonists). 11 jeunes Centrafricains racontent en bandes dessinées "Comment aimerions nous vivre en l'an 2000?". Bangui: Centre Culturel français. n.d. 58pp. Cf. Dum, Kette.

Anonymous. Bia ti OTN [Songs of (the church organization) Women (Who) Tell (the) Good (News)] Bangui: Foyer de la Littérature, Biblique des Frères, n.d.

Anonymous. Bia ti Sepala Nzapa [Songs to Worship God]. comp. by Rev. Martin Garber. Bangui: Foyer de la Literature, Biblique Des Frères, n.d.

Anonymous. Mbeti ti Nzapa. Bangui: Les Sociétés Bibliques, 1966.

Anonmymous. "L'Origine et les premières années d'un poste de l'Oubangui-Chari-Fort-Crampel." Unpublished manuscript in the Bibliothèque de l’École Nationale d'Administration et de la Magistrature, Bangui, Central African Republic.

Anonymous. "Découvertes archéologiques dans la région de Bouar." Terre africaine. 4, 140 (1966):1-2.

Anon. “Le café en Oubangui-Chari” (Coffee in Ubangi-Shari). Marchés Tropicaux, (15 March 1958):701-04.

"Antibiotic resistance among Nasopharyngeal isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae - Bangui, Central African Republic, 1995." Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Jan 24, 1997.

"Central African Republic commits to Kimberley process." Israel Diamonds, August, 2003.

"Central African Republic government suspends 8 diamond companies." Diamond Intelligence Briefs, June, 2003.

"CAR suspends diamond mining agreements.(Central African Republic)." Diamond Intelligence Briefs, May, 2003.

"Central African Republic; steady progress continues; investment is encouraged - Business Outlook Abroad." Business America, 1 Sept 1986.

"TotalFinaElf to sell petrol products in Central African Republic." NPN International, 1 March, 2001.

"Central African Republic." International Railway Journal, 1 May, 2000.

"Central African Republic Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 1997."
Contemporary Women's Issues Database, 1 January, 1998.

"Countries in Africa with highest degree of human suffering." africamissions.org/africa/humansuf.htm -

Anonymous. "38 years with the Azande and their music." Missions, a Verona Fathers Magazine, 20, 4 (1966):114-21.

Le défi d'une croissance durable. République Centrafricaine. n.d. 199-?. 80p. Copy at the Library of Congress.

Un pays blesse: à la recherche de la PAIX et de la reconciliation: la République centrafricaine. Bangui: Saint-Paul: Impr. Saint Paul, 2000?. 56 p. 20 cm.

Anonymous. Jean-Paul II en Centrafrique. Bangui: 1985.

Anonymous. Uno sguardo di attesa. Una proposta di solidarietà (Des yeux qui attendent. Proposition de solidarité). Geneva: Instituto S. Caterina, 1989.

Anonymous. Opérations réfugiés Soudanais, préliminaire de développement du Haut-Mbomou. Compte-rendu d'éxecution. Paris: BDPA, 1969-1970. Cf. BDPA.

ANSWERS.com
www.answers.com/topic/economy-of-the-central-african-republic

Note: Article on the CAR's economy repeats CIA's information

ANTONETTI
G. G. Antonetti

French Equatorial Africa limited recruitment by the administration itself to "a third of the ablebodied male population that had reached adult age" and by 1926 warned the new exploiters of the forest areas that they were setting up their work sites "at their own risk and peril and in the knowledge that they were in danger of not finding the necessary manpower on the spot." The official rates of recruitment were generally exceeded, however, by a variety of means. The concept of ablebodied male, for example, could be translated loosely... (Coquery-Vidrovitch, Africa: Endurance and Change South of the Sahara, p. 229, citing Avis du G. G. Antonetti, Journal Officiel de l'AEF 1, no. 6 [1926]; and 1, no. 12 [1927].)

ANTONNETI
R. Antonneti

Antonneti, R. "Creation des Parcs Nationaux." Brazzaville: Direction des Affaires Politiques, 28 February 1934, p. 5.

ANZINGER

Anzinger (Gunnar) - Government on the WWW - Central African Republic
http://www.gksoft.com/govt/en/cf.html
Note: Links to web sources on the CAR government.

APPERT (bibliography)

Appert, M. Essai de Bibliographie concernant le Tchad jusqu'en 1913. Vol. 1. Paris: 1982. 104p.

ARCHIDIOCESE DE BANGUI (religion)

Album du centenaire de l'Eglise catholique en Centrafrique, 1894-1994. Bangui: Commission du Centenaire de l'Eglise de Centrafrique, Archidiocèse de Bangui, 1994.

ARCHINARD Cf. CONGO-NILE MISSION, MARCHAND MISSION

...politics, not argument, finally sent the Congo-Nile mission on its way. Marchand's old commanding officer, Archinard, was fighting the civilians from his perch in the Defense Office. He...guided Marchand to deputies who could help the campaign, and politicked to destroy the influence of civilian opponents. He prepared instructions to be sent to Liotard stating that a reduced colonial budget would "not permit him to occupy all the posts ceded to us by the Belgians." Liotard would have to stay where he was, and await the arrival of "some missions" organized to occupy the Nile basin, and to which Liotard was to lend his full cooperation. Archinaud even proposed recalling Liotard. Roume strongly disapproved and Archinard's instructions were countermanded. But shortly after Marchand's impatient January letter, Roume resigned his post. His replacement was one Gustave Binger, the former governor of the new Ivory Coast colony, an active member of the Comité de l'Afrique Francaise, and a former army officer who had served under Archinaud....The minister of colonies, the gray Monsieur Guieysse, now decided it was politic to approve Marchand's scheme for the second time. On 24 February 1896, he signed the captain's preliminary marching orders, but expressly subordinated his mission to Liotard's authority....(Lewis, The Race to Fashoda, p. 89.)

ARCHIVES DE L'EGLISE EVANGÉLIQUE LUTHÉRIENNE DE LA RCA

Archives de la Sudan Mission à Baboua :
Anderson Arthur, Rapport de la rencontre, Baboua, 1937.
Hilberth John, Lettre à la Sudan Mission, Gamboula, 4.11.1937
Karlsson, Hilberth et Almstam, Lettre à la Sudan Mission, Gamboula, 6.1.1938
Magnusson John, Lettre à la Sudan Mission, 24.3.1947
Procès-Verbal du synode constitutif à Lokoti-Bangui, 8.-11.4.1973
Procès-Verbal du deuxième à Béloko , 28.2-3.3.1974
Procès-Verbal du troisième synode à Bingué, 9.-11.4.1976
Procès-Verbal du quatrième synode à Bossabina, 14.-16.4.1978
Okland Andrew et Sand Lloyd, Lettre à la Mission Baptiste Suédoise, Abba, 21.8.1937
Okland A. et Sand L., Lettre à la Mission Baptiste Suédoise, Abba, 13.12.1937.
Okland A., Lettre à Gunderson, Meiganga, 21.2.1939
Svenson, Sundquist et Mjörnell, Lettre à la Sudan Mission, Gamboula, 25.4.1945
Watne John, Lettre à la Mission Baptiste Suédoise, Abba, 15.12.1950. Archive de la SM à Baboua.

ARCHIVES OF THE EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN CHURCH OF AMERICA
www.elca.org/archives/dgm/cameroon.html

Noss, Philip A. "Ideas, phones and Gbaya verbal art." In Ideophones, ed. by F. Voeltz, K. Erhard and Christa Kilian-Hatz. Nairobi: Africa Inter-Regional Translations Services, pp. 259–270.

Roulon-Doko, Paulette. "Le statut des idéophones en gbaya." In Ideophones, ed. by F. Voeltz, K. Erhard and Christa Kilian-Hatz. Nairobi: Africa Inter-Regional Translations Services, pp. 287-301.

ARENZANO (peoples, history)

Arenzano, Père Umberto. Pana Ieri et Oggi. Genes, 1967.

AREWA

Arewa, Ojo and G.M. Shreve. The Genesis of Structures in African Narrative. Volume I: Zande Trickster Tales. New York & London: Conch Magazine Limited, 1975.

ARISTIDE cf. HAITI, UNITED STATES, GABON
Jean-Baptiste Aristide, President of Haiti until removed to the Central African Republic

"Aristide says he was forced to leave." Associated Press, 1 March 2004.
www.notinourname.net/war/haiti-1mar04.htm

Aristide said...he thought he was being taken to the Caribbean island of Antigua, but instead he has been exiled to the Central African Republic...[he] arrived Monday [?] according to the country's state radio. (www.notinourname.net/war/haiti-1mar04.htm)

Editor of Haiti-Progres, Kim Ives had a lengthy interview with Aristide while in the Central African Republic. Ives works with the Haiti Support Network.

ARMED FORCES cf. ARMY, AIR FORCE, GENDARMERIE, DEFENCE AND SECURITY

In 1989 the [armed] forces of the CAR remained stable at 6,500 troops: 3,500 in the Army, 300 in the Air Force, 2,700 in a para-military gendarmerie [national police force]. This was supplemented by a small French force that ranged from 1,000-2,000. Service is based on a selective conscription for a two-year period, with varying terms of reserve obligation. The... [1987 figures] list defense expenditures at $18.67m with an additional $10.18m (1988) in support from France and the United States (US). The Army includes one Republican Guard Regiment (two battalions), one territorial defense regiment (one battalion), one combined arms regiment (one mechanized and one infantry battalion), one support/HQ regiment, and one Presidential Guard Regiment. (Webb, "Central African Republic," ACR 1989-1990, p. B172).

The small armed forces, numbering just 6,500 including the gendarmerie [national police force], are not strong enough to control the CAR's vast land area. They have difficulty even dealing with elephant pouchers, and there must be doubts about their ability to withstand any attempt to take over the country. This makes the Kolingba government still partly dependent upon the reassurance provided by the French troops at Bangui and Bou[a]r, now thought to number about 1,000 in all (EIU Country Report, "Central African Republic," 1st Quarter 1990, p. 23)

The [armed forces of the CAR] are taking on a further 200 men to help combat banditry. The zar[a]guina (bandits or highwaymen in the local dialect [Sango]) caused some damage in the first half of 1989 but do not seem to have seriously disrupted the economy of development work. The USA, for example, is quite content to keep its Peace Corps workers in the field across the country. The additional soldiers may also help in the fight against poaching. Control of both poachers and bandits is difficult in such a large, thinly populated territory, especially when neighbouring eastern Chad and southern Sudan remain lawless, with guns in plentiful supply. (EIU Country Report, "Central African Republic," 2nd Quarter 1990, p. 26)

"CAR: Annan says reforms must go further." IRIN, 19 April 1999.
NAIROBI, 19 Apr 1999 (IRIN) - The Central African Republic has made some moves towards reform but progress has been slow and further action is urgently required, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan reported on Monday....He also said that "the imminent adoption of the laws on restructuring the armed forces is a major step in the right direction"... He also appealed for contributions to support the Central African police force, which is receiving training under the MINURCA civilian police component (CIVPOL). The report on MINURCA is to be addressed by the UN Security Council on Wednesday (21 April).

"Annan urges preparations for polls." IRIN, 2 June 1999.
NAIROBI, 2 Jun 1999 (IRIN) - UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan... In a report to the Security Council, ...appealed for financial assistance to restructure the armed forces, police and gendarmerie. “Further progress in the establishment of a well-trained and adequately-equipped security force is essential in view of the volatility of the situation within and around the Central African Republic,” he said.

"Security Council concerned at "minimal progress" on security issues." IRIN, 21 July 1999.
NAIROBI, 21 Jul 1999 (IRIN) - The UN Security Council on Tuesday "expressed dismay at the negative impact of continued fighting" and at the minimal progress reported by the Secretary General's Special Representative, Oluyemi Adeniji, on security issues underpinning the consolidation of democracy. Stressing that the CAR government had "primary responsibility for maintaining peace and security", Council members underlined the need for it to restructure the armed forces, keep special defence forces from assuming law and order functions beyond their mandate and ensure a secure environment in the run-up to elections slated, in two rounds, for 29 August and 2 September.

22 November 2005
"China to Enhance Military Co-op with CAR." China View, 22 November 2005. news.xinhuanet.com/english/2005-11/22/content_3819703.htm
BEIJING, Nov. 22 (Xinhuanet) -- China is ready to enhance military cooperation with the Central African Republic, said Chinese Defence Minister Cao Gangchuan here Tuesday.
In a meeting with Antoine Gambi, chief of the General Staff of Central African Republic, Cao said the people of the two countries have maintained traditional friendship since they forged diplomatic ties in the 1960s, despite some setbacks in the past. Cao, also vice-chairman of the Central Military Commission (CMC) and state councilor, said China spoke positively of Central African Republic for its adherence to the one-China policy and support for China's national unity. China will continue to develop, together with the Central African Republic, the friendly cooperation between the two countries and two armed forces, added Cao, who also briefed the guests on the construction of China's army. Gambi said Central African Republic and China have witnessed increasing cooperation in various fields in recent years. He expressed the appreciation for China's great help to his country and hoped that the current visit will move forward the existing good relations between the two sides. Before the meeting, Liang Guanglie, Gambi's Chinese counterpart and also a member of the CMC, held a welcoming ceremony for Gambi and held a talk with him. ("China to Enhance Military Co-op with CAR." China View, 22 November 2005. news.xinhuanet.com/english/2005-11/22/content_3819703.htm)

U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor. "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Central African Republic 2004." 28 February 2005.

The National Police are under the direction of the Ministry of Interior and Public Security, while the military forces and the National Gendarmerie are under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Defense; all share responsibility for internal security. Civilian authorities did not maintain effective control of the security forces. By mid-January, the Government had disbanded the Security Investigation Division (SERD), a military intelligence unit that operated as part of presidential security services, due to accusations that the SERD committed serious human rights abuses during 2003. In December 2003, President Bozize signed an order dismissing a number of soldiers from the army because of indiscipline; the soldiers named reportedly were removed from army lists and sent home. As part of its efforts to protect citizens and safeguard property, the Government continued to support joint security operations in the capital conducted by the Armed Forces, the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC) force, and French forces. In addition, BONUCA, a U.N. peace-building mission in the country, operated during the year. Members of the security forces committed numerous serious human rights abuses.

ARMY cf. ARMED FORCES, GENDARMERIE, POLICE

A fledgling Central African army was taking shape under the direction of the local French commander, General Marcel Bigeaud. While this was happening, Captain Bokassa was seconded to Dacko as a member of his military cabinet. This was a committee that advised the president (who was also Defense Minister) on military matters. On 1 January 1962 Bokassa resigned his commission in the French army and was integrated into the Central African forces with the rank of battalion commandant. A little over a year later, on 1 February 1963, he became commander-in-chief of the Central African army - an assemblage of five hundred poorly trained and poorly equipped soldiers. On 1 December 1964, he became the army's first and only colonel. (Titley, Dark Age, p. 21)

In 1989 [the CAR's Army had 3,500 soldiers]...Service is based on a selective conscription for a two-year period, with varying terms of reserve obligation...The Army includes one Republican Guard Regiment (two battalions), one territorial defense regiment (one battalion), one combined arms regiment (one mechanized and one infantry battalion), one support/HQ regiment, and one Presidential Guard Regiment. (Webb, "Central African Republic," ACR 1989-1990, p. B172).
The Army's equipment [in 1989 included] four Russian-built T-55 main battle tanks; ten French design Ferret reconnaissance vehicles; various armoured personnel carriers; 81mm and 120mm mortars; 89mm rocket launchers; 14 106 recoilless launchers; and nine river patrol craft. (Webb, "Central African Republic," ACR 1989-1990, p. B172).

ETHNIC COMPOSITION OF THE ARMY
President Kolingba's personal adviser Octave Oudegbe, himself of Beninois origin and rumoured to be a distant kinsman of President Kérékou, is said to have negotiated the extradition [of Bozize and other opposition leaders in Benin to the CAR]. Central African dissidents claim that General Bozize's movement had been infiltrated by the Kolingba's secret agents. They supposedly discovered that the group had hired two elite men to help in a coup attempt. Paris sources suggest that Zaire's President Mobutu Sese Seko, who is close to President Kolingba, sent an army Hercules transport plane to Cotonou to deliver the prisoners, to Central Africa's autonomous armoured unit (EBA) in Bangui, which is dominated by the president's own Yakoma tribe. (EIU Country Report, "Central African Republic," 1st Quarter 1990, p. 23)

ARNAUT (exploration, colonization, history)

Arnaut, Robert. Sur les traces de Stanley et de Brazza. Mercure de France, 1989. 618p.

ARNEY

Arney, Megan. "Rebellion in Central Africa Stings Paris." The Militant, 81, 4 (27 January 1997). www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/35/020.html gopher://gopher.igc.apc.org:/11/pubs/militant

AROM

Arom, Simha. Anthologie de la musique pygmée aka (Empire Centafricaine). Paris: OCORA (558.526-528), 1978. I coffret (2 disques 33, t./30 cm. commentaires bilingues et photos). Grand Prix de l'Académie Charles Cros.

Arom, Simha, S. Bahuchet, A. Epelboin, S. Fürniss, H. Guillaume, J.M.C. Thomas. Les Pygmées Aka: Peuple et musique. CD-Rom. Paris: co-édition Montparnasse multimédia-CNRS-ORSTOM (with the support of the Ministry of Research and Culture), 1988.

Arom, Simha. Contes et chantefables ngbaka-mambo (RCA) (Ngbaka-Mabo tales and
singing fables [CAR]). Paris: SELAF, 1970.

Arom, Simha. Anthologie de la musique pygmée aka (Empire Centafricaine). Paris: OCORA (558.526-528), 1978. I coffret (2 disques 33, t./30 cm. commentaires bilingues et photos). Grand Prix de l'Académie Charles Cros.

Arom, Simha, S. Bahuchet, A. Epelboin, S. Fürniss, H. Guillaume, J.M.C. Thomas. Les Pygmées Aka: Peuple et musique. CD-Rom. Paris: co-édition Montparnasse multimédia-CNRS-ORSTOM (with the support of the Ministry of Research and Culture), 1988.

Arom, Simha. “Folk music of the Central African Republic”. Grove’s Dictionary of
Music and Musicians. London: Macmillan, 1981.

Arom, Simha. Polyphonies et polyrythmies instrumentales d’Afrique Centrale: structure
et méthodologie (The instrumental polyphonies and polyrhythms of central Africa: structure and methodology). 2 Vols. Paris: SELAF, 1985.

Arom, Simha. "Esprit et Techniques des Polyphonies centrafricaines." Thèse. ???

Arom, Simha and G. Tourelle. "Culte des Jumeaux chez le Ali en RCA." Encyclopédie des Musiques Sacrée. Vol. 1. ???: 1968, pp. 92-99.

Arom, Simha and G. Tourelle. "Rituel de Guerison chez les Ngbaka-Mandja." Encyclopédie des Musiques Sacrée. Vol. 1. ???: 1968, pp. 100-104.

Arom, Simha and J.M.C. Thomas. Musiques Vocales Ngbaka-Mabo. Paris: SELAF, LACITO, 1974. 179p., 6 records, 33.

ARQUISOU

Callede, J. and G. Arquisou. "Données climatologiques recueillies à la station bioclimatologique de Bangui pendant la période 1963-1971." Cah. ORSTOM, Série Hydrologie, 9, 4 (1972):1-26.

ARRÊTÉ Cf. JOURNAL OFFICIEL DE L'AFRIQUE EQUATORIAL FRANCAISE

"Arrêté autorisant Madame veuve Gribble secondée par Mademoiselle Tyson à ouvrir un dispensaire gratuit pour indigènes à Yalouké (Ombella-M'Poko) et Mesdemoiselles Myers et Bickel, un dispensaire à Bassai (Ouham)." JOAEF (15 Jan.-1 Feb. 1926).

ARSLANIAN FRÈRES cf. ANAGNOSTELLIS, ANTWERP, DIAMONDS, SODIAM

Bokassa succeeding in siphoning off some of the revenue from [diamonds], but it was hardly sufficient to satisfy his wants. By 1969 he had saved only enough to purchase Villemorant, his first château in France. He knew that the diamond business offered him the surest road to wealth and he also knew that it would have to be deregulated in order to achieve his goal. Consequently, the all-too-honest Malendoma was shuffled out of the economics portfolio and the careful supervision of the trade began to lapse. In 1969 a new company, Centradiam, made its appearance on the Bangui diamond market. It was not part of the established consortium, whose monopoly was now terminated. Bokassa himself, it turned out, was a major shareholder in the company, whose principal financial backing came from the Anagnostellis brothers - Greek tycoons with an unsavoury background. Andrée, the wife of Dmitri Anagnostellis, actually served as Bokassa's secretary between 1966 and 1974. Dmitri represented Arslanian, the Antwerp-based dimond company that was known as Sodiam. (Titley, Dark Age, p. 74, citing Interview, former official of the Taillerie nationale de diamant, Bangui, March 1990). Centradiam paid no taxes, license fee, or anything of the kind, and it took little imagination to figure out where much of the profit was going. (Titley, Dark Age, p. 74).

The diamond economy of the CAR is also connected to diamond production by the DRC's other main rebel faction, the RCD-Goma. This group is backed by Rwanda, and controls the diamond town of Kisangani. Arslanian Frères reportedly bought diamonds from a company based in Kisangani, Belco Diamant, and it also runs the Sodiam bureau d'achat in Bangui. (Dietrich, "Hard Currency," p. 22)


ARTICLE 19 RESEARCH AND INFORMATION CENTRE ON CENSORSHIP

Cf. Freedom of information and expression in Central African Republic: a commentary on the report submitted to the Human Rights Committee by the government of Central African Republic. Article 19 Research & Information Centre on Censorship, c1989. 22p. 30 cm.

Article 19. Freedom of Information and ...in the Central African Republic.

ARTIODACTYLA

Artiodactyla, or cloven-hooved mammals, include such familiar animals as sheep, goats, camels, pigs, cows, deer, giraffes, and antelopes — most of the world's species of large land mammals are artiodactyls. Many living artiodactyls have evolved features that are adaptive for life on open grasslands. As beasts of burden and as sources of meat, hair, and leather, artiodactyls have assumed important roles in many cultures around the world. ("Introduction to the Artiodactyla [order of mammals]," www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/mammal/artio/artiodactyla.html)

[Artiodactyla in the dense forest region of southern CAR where the Aka live]
Many of the vertebrate species exploited by the Aka are common throughout the forest. These include...several artiodactyls [even-toed ungulates (hoofed mammals)], principally small and medium-sized duikers and bush pig. (Hudson, "Advancing methods in zooarchaeology," p. 44)

The four principal game species exploited by local people [in the Bayanga area of southwestern CAR], for subsistence and for trade in bushmeat, are the brush-tailed porcupine (Atherurus africanus) and three duikers (Cephalophus callipygus, C. dorsalis, and C. monticola). Noss, "Duikers, Cables and Nets," p. 64).

ASECNA
ASECNA is the Agency for Air Navigation Safety in Africa and Madagascar.

Chabra, A. "Aperçu sur le climat centrafricain." Bangui: ASECNA, 1962. 24p.

Goulee, A. "Note sure la pluviométrie en RCA." Bangui: ASECNA, 1964. 92p.

ASIA cf. PAGNE, TEXTILES, CLOTH, CLOTHES, WOMEN

1991
During 1990, containers (des conteneurs) of plain printed cloth imported from Asia arrived in the Congo by sea at prices which undercut all competition: 2,400 CFA a cloth wrap (pagne) versus 2,850 CFA from Ucatex [the CAR'S textile factory]. (Gilguy, "Centrafrique," p. 3081).

ASSEMBLÉE LEGISLATIVE DE LA REPUBLIQUE CENTRAFRICAINE

Assemblée législative. Débats. Bangui: 1959-60. Irregular. Supersedes publication with the same title issued by the Assemblée territoriale of Ubangi-Shari (see below).

Assemblée législative. Documents annexes aux débats. Bangui: 1959-60. Irregular.

Assemblée législative. Recueil des déliberations. Bangui: 1959?-1960. Irregular.

ASSEMBLÉE NATIONALE DE LA REPUBLIQUE CENTRAFRICAINE

Assemblée nationale. Compte rendu intégral de la séance. Bangui: Nov.-Dec. 1963. Irregular.

Assemblée nationale. Débats. Bangui: Oct.-Dec. 1960-1965. Irregular.

Assemblée nationale. Documents annexes aux débats. Bangui: Oct.-Dec. 1960-1965. Irregular.

Maurice Methot, a relation of Zaire's president Mobutu Sese Seko, was named president of the [CAR's] National Assembly on [19 January 1988]. The 57 year old Mr Metho received agricultural training in Israel and South Africa, and was president of the Chamber of Agriculture and Industry for 17 years. The appointment is a futher example of the friendly relations with CAR's important neighbor to the south. In late November [1987] President Mobutu visited Bangui, and signed a accord on energy cooperation and an agreement for the construction and joint operation of a hydroelectric dam on the Oubangui river at Mobayi-Mbongo in Zaire's Equateur province. In early January the two presidents met at Gbadolite, the home town of the Zairean leader, to visit the dam site. (EIU Country Report, "Central African Republic," 2nd Quarter 1988, p. 21)

The president of the National Assembly, Mr Metho, called on Côte d'Ivoire President President Félix Houphouët-Boigny in February [1988]. The Ivorian head of state gave asylum to Mr Bokassa from 1979 to 1983, and is said to be settling the bills of French lawyers who defended the former emperor at his trial. (EIU Country Report, "Central African Republic," 2th Quarter 1988, p. 23)

ASSEMBLÉE NATIONALE FRANÇAISE cf. FRENCH TROOPS, DEBT

1989 November
A delegation led by the chairman of the [French] Assemblée Nationale defense commission, the Socialist Jean-Michel Boucheron, visited Bangui in November [1989]. Accompanied by five other deputies and a senior army official, the team was reviewing the role of French forces based in the CAR. Their role, particularly that of the forces at Bouar, is principally to act as a rapid strike force and back-up for French forces which helped to keep Hissène Habré in power in Chad. Now that mediators [such as Omar Bongo of Gabon?] are attempting to reach a lasting settlement between Chad and Libya, the French role in the CAR may seem less important (EIU Country Report, "Central African Republic," 1st Quarter 1990, p. 25)

1990
the French Assemblée Nationale [passed a] law to cancel debt payments due to the Caisse Centrale de Coopération Economique (CCCE) this year [1990]. This... provides assurance that Paris will adhere to the debt relief initiative announced in Dakar in May 1989. (EIU Country Report, "Central African Republic," 1st Quarter 1990, p. 30)

ASSEMBLEE TERRITORIALE DE L'OUBANGUI-CHARI

Assemblée territoriale. Débats. Bangui: 1946-?-1952?. Irregular.

ASSOCIATION AGLOW INTERNATIONALE CENTRAFRIQUE cf. NGOs,

Cf. Seka, A. "L'AMBASSADE CHRETIENNE FAIT DON DE DEUX MACHINES ELECTRIQUES A AGLOW INTERNATIONAL CENTRAFRIQUE." Le Confident, 27 January 2006, http://www.leconfident.net

L'Association Aglow Internationale Centrafrique, don l'objectif est d'aider les femmes chrétiennes à évoluer dans le domaine de la foi et d'initier les jeunes filles à la couture et à l'art ménager, a reçu hier après-midi des mains du pasteur Josué Binoua, au nom de l'Ambassade Chrétienne, un don de deux machines à coudre électriques. La cérémonie de remise s'est tenue en présence des responsables de ladite Association et de cinquante filles (membres) assidues à la fondation de couturière depuis trois mois maintenant.
Trois discours ont été prononcés pour la circonstance, d'abord par Mme Pauline Zouhéta, Directrice de la formation, ensuite par le pasteur Josué Binoua et enfin par Mme Marie Louise Makemba, assistante. Cette formation qui s'étale sur une durée de 9 mois s'est débutée le 16 novembre 2005, maintenant plus de 3 mois. Gratuite et ouverte à des jeunes filles de toutes les dénominations voire des non croyantes, la formation n'est qu'à sa première promotion.
« Mieux vaut apprendre à quelqu'un à pêcher que de lui donner chaque fois du poisson ». C'est en conformité avec cet adage Chinois que l'Ambassade Chrétienne, par la voie de son représentant le Pasteur Josué Binoua, entend venir en appui à ses jeunes filles désœuvrées. Un geste important qui leur permettra en effet, une fois formées, de se prendre elle-même en charge et d'éviter de tomber dans les pratiques humiliantes de la prostitution.
Si nombre d'institution prenaient ainsi à cœur le problème de la jeunesse féminine actuellement laissée pour compte, il est fort possible que le taux de prévalence en VIH/SIDA se serait réduit car il faut se le dire sans se voiler la face que la pauvreté en Centrafrique est l'élément moteur à l'origine de l'expansion de ce fléau. Il faut au secours de la jeunesse féminine. (A. Seka in Le Confident, 27 January 2006, www.leconfident.net) Vendredi 27 Janvier 2006, A. Seka, Lu 71 fois

ASSOCIATION DES ÉGLISES BAPTISTES ÉVANGELIQUES EN CENTRAFRIQUE cf. AEBEC, NGOs, BAPTISTES, BAPTISTS, ÉGLISES, CHURCHES

Cf. Grand, Petit-Jean. "EGLISE PROTESTANTE : L'AEBEC DESORMAIS DOTEE D'UN BUREAU EXECUTIF." Le Confident, 30 January 2006, www.leconfident.net

L'Association des Eglises Baptistes Evangéliques en Centrafrique vient de rendre officielle la composition de son nouveau bureau exécutif composé de sept membres élus lors du 7è congrès tenue à Bambari du 23 au 27 novembre 2005.
L'église AEBEC de Kolongo sis avenue Dacko a abrité samedi dernier la cérémonie de prise officielle du nouveau bureau. Ce bureau à la particularité d'être jeune et engagé. En effet, le Président nation de l'AEBEC, M. Nicolas Aimé Simplice Singa-Gbazia a environ 35 ans et titulaire d'une maîtrise des sciences religieuses.
La cérémonie a été présidée par le reverrant Pasteur Isaac Zokoué assistés du Docteur Kossé-Kuzuli, Franco Mbaye-Mbondoï. A noter que le Ministre de l'intérieur, Chargé de la Sécurité publique, M. Michel Sallé, représentant personnel du chef de l'Etat a pris part à ladite cérémonie.
Dans son message le docteur Zokoué a exhorté, à travers le passage de Romain:12:16 les nouveaux promus à l'exercice de leurs responsabilités. Faisant un rappel de son histoire à lui-même, le docteur Zokoué a dit que les églises d'aujourd'hui quelles que soient leurs dénominations veulent cumuler les postes de responsabilités qui, en réalité ne concernent 7 à 9 personnes. Il a mis en garde le nouveau bureau de l'AEBEC contre ces faits nuisibles à l'amélioration et l'avancement des églises membres de cet organe. Zokoué a invité le nouveau bureau à faire plus et à faire mieux.
Prenant la parole en second lieu, le pasteur Nicolas Aimé Simplice Singa-Gbazia, nouveau Président national de l'AEBEC, a remercié le gouvernement qui a envoyé le Ministre de l'Intérieur, M. Michel Sallé représentant personnel du chef de l'Etat à cette cérémonie. Il a situé l'auditoire sur le fait que les activités des églises visent l'amélioration des conditions de vie de la société, c'est-à-dire des membres. De ce fait, il a énuméré plusieurs projets que le nouveau bureau se donne comme programme d'action, il s'agit de : - la lutte contre leVIH/ Sida ; - la lutte contre la pauvreté qui passeront, nécessairement par la mise en place de structures de l'AEBEC en charge de ces programmes ; c'est ainsi qu'il a été envisagé la création d'un centre de formation féminine à implanter soit à Kolongo, soit à l'ex Socada. Sur ce, il a sollicité le concours du gouvernement pour l'octroi du terrain.
Rappelant que le programme d'action du nouveau bureau national de l'AEBEC vise :
la lutte contre le Vih/Sida en milieu religieux ; la lutte contre la pauvreté sur toute l'étendu du territoire ; l'évangélisation du peuple Centrafricain à travers la multiplication des Eglises Baptistes Evangélique en Centrafrique un organe de développement de la Centrafrique en général et des communautés chrétiennes de l'AEBEC en particulier. Pour cela il a sollicité la réouverture des chapelles des 4è et 7è Arrondissement fermées pour des bruits intestines. Il a promis facilité la procédure d'octroi de terrains pour ces réalisations, mais à condition que l'administration de l'AEBEC fasse une demande régulière.
Signalons que le nouveau bureau est composé des membres suivants :
Président : Rév: Nicolas-Aimé-Simplice Singa-Gbazia
1er Vice Président : Rév : Philippe Nguingoupou-Mandaba
2emè Vice Président : Rév. Raymond André-Roger Waka
Secrétaire Général: Rév. André-Roger Waka
Secrétaire général adjoint: Pascal Togbia Ndakala
Trésorier général: André Ndouvadé
Conseiller : Rév: Daniel Ngabanda
(Le Confident, 30 January 2006, http://www.leconfident.net) Lundi 30 Janvier 2006 Grand. Petit-Jean Lu 72 fois

ASSOCIATION CENTRAFRICAINE POUR LE BIEN ÊTRE FAMILIAL cf.
ACABEF, NGOs,

ASSOCIATION COEUR D'AFRIQUE Cf. BEAFRICA.org
Association Cœur d'Afrique http://www.beafrica.org
Note: Facts about the Central African Republic, older news of the CAR from Agence France Presse and PANA. The Rapport annuel 1999 of the Ligue centrafricaine des droits de l'homme, words to the national anthem in Sängö and French, provided by members, links to related sites. Hosts an active discussion group, be-africa (created March 23, 1999). Based in Nanterre, France.

ASSOCIATION DES FEMMES JURISTES DE CENTRAFRIQUE cf. SAPPOT
Association des Femmes Juristes de Centrafrique, Catherine Sappot

ASSOCIATION MONDIALE POUR L'APPEL ISLAMIQUE cf. AMAI

Cf. Momet, Mathurin Nestor Constant. "LA CICA DENONCE LA CONFISCATION DES DONS PAR L'AMBASSADE LIBYENNE." Le Confident, 19 January 2006, www.leconfident.net.

A l'occasion de la fête de Tabaski de cette année 2006, la grande Jamahiriya Arabe Libyenne a fait don de denrées alimentaire à l'Etat Centrafricain dont une partie doit revenir à la Communauté Islamique. Le mardi, 3 janvier nuit, le chargé d ‘Affaires Libyen a informé par téléphone le Président de la Communauté Islamique Centrafricaine (CICA) de la prochaine arrivée à Bangui d'une forte délégation de l'Association Mondiale pour l'appel Islamique (AMAI) sans préciser ni le mobile ni le jour de l'arrivée et prie son interlocuteur d'être présent à l'aéroport. Le lendemain 4 janvier, ce même chargé d'Affaires rappelle le Président de la CICA à 11h 50 mn pour lui annoncer l'arrivée de la délégation et précise que l'avion se pose à 13 heures, heure locales... (Mathurin Nestor Constant Momet, "LA CICA DENONCE LA CONFISCATION DES DONS PAR L'AMBASSADE LIBYENNE." Le Confident, 19 January 2006, www.leconfident.net)

ASTOLFI

Pennetti, V. L. Sgaramella-Zonta and P. Astolfi. "General Health Care of the African Pygmies of the Central African Republic." In African Pygmies. ed. L.L. Cavalli-Sforza. New York: Academic Press, 1986.

ATMORE

Roland Oliver and Anthony Atmore. Africa Since 1800. 3rd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981. Cf. the origin of the concessionary system in the Congo basin.

Before the coming of the river-steamers in the 1880s very little trade had passed by water through the forest centre to the Congo mouth... There was no worthwhile exchange of European manufactures against African produce on which [potential] colonisers could build, as they had been able to in West Africa. No government could support itself by levying customs on the trade passing through Buma or Libreville, still less raise a loan for the building of railways round the Congo cataracts or south from the upper Kasai to Katanga. The finance required for such projects was 'risk capital', which had to be attracted by the possibility of long-term gains in order to offset the lack of immediate results. In these circumstances, the time-honoured solution was that followed in railway development in North and South America - private capital was attracted by grants of land and mineral rights in the area to be opened up.
Such was in fact the origin of the system of concessionaire companies which was to become the distinguishing feature of the colonial history of this region. In 1886 King Leopold made the first contract of this kind with the Compagnie du Congo pour le Commerce et l'Industrie (CCCI) under which the company agreed to build a railway round the lower Congo rapids from Matadi to Leopoldville, in exchange for which it could claim 1,500 hectares (a little over 14 square kilometres) for every kilometre of line constructed. Thus, the lower Congo railway alone involved the alienation of nearly 8,000 square kilometres. No sooner was it completed in 1898 than similar contracts were made with two other companies...
All the land conceded in this way was in theory 'waste land', the villages of the Congolese and the land actually under cultivation by them being excluded. But since land was useless without labour, every form of pressure was put upon local inhabitants to work for the concessionaire companies. The worst abuses occurred during the period from about 1895 to 1905, when the invention of pneumatic rubber tyres for bicycles and motor-cars was causing a great demand for rubber. In the long term this demand was met by the development of rubber plantations in South-East Asia. While the boom in wild rubber lasted, however, very large profits indeed were made by the concessionaire companies in the Congo. In theory these companies employed, but in practice compelled, their Congolese neighbours to tap rubber in the forests, usually for very small rewards. The profits secured in this way aroused the greed of King Leopold, who took over and managed himself large areas of Crown land. Others he leased to private companies on a profit-sharing basis. The system proved so attractive that it spread into French Equatorial African. Here the French government saw in it a means of reducing the large annual deficits which had been accumulating since the beginning of colonial rule. In both territories the worse abuses of the system were brought to an end between 1906 and 1910, when the end of the wild rubber boom coincided with an outcry by international public opinion. In 1908 King Leopold was forced to cede the Congo to Belgium. In an effort to provide a more direct administration and to cut down expenses, France in 1910 joined the four territories of Gabon, Middle Congo, Oubangui-Chari and Tchad into the federation of French Equatorial Africa... capital at Brazzaville. Both the French and Belgian governments, however, had contracts with the concessionaire companies which they could fulfil only by leaving the companies in possession of large areas of land and with commercial monopolies over still larger areas. The Belgian Congo was further burdened with the enormous debt which King Leopold had incurred by borrowing money on the Congo's account and spending it on his palaces and other public buildings in Belgium. The interest on the debt at one time absorbed nearly a fifth of the country's revenue. (Oliver and Atmore, Africa Since 1880, pp. 137-138)

ATO

Ato, Benoit-Faustin. "Péripéties des décisions en milieu rural centrafricain, impact sur le développement coopératif (Decision-making episodes/events in rural Central Africa and their impact on cooperative development)." MA thesis, Université de Poitiers, Poitiers, France, 1981. 365p.

AUBERT (health, Haute-Sangha)

Aubert, Docteur P. "Mission dans la Haute-Sangha. Etude de la dysenterie et de la Trypanosomiase humaine." Annales d'Hygiène et de Medicine coloniale (1911):782-612.

AUBRÉVILLE

Aubréville, A. “Etude sur les forêts de l’Afrique équatoriale française et du Cameroun” (A study of the forests of French Equatorial Africa and Cameroon). Bulletin Scientifique de la Section Technique d’Agriculture Tropicale, no. 2 (1948). 132p.

Aubréville, A. Climat, fortês et désertification de l’Afrique tropicale (Climate, forests and the desertification in tropical Africa). Paris: Société des études géographiques, maritimes, et coloniales, 1949. 351p.

Aubréville, A., Flore forestière soudano-guinéenne A.O.F. Cameroun A.E.F., Soc. Edit. Géogr. Mar. et Col., Paris, 1950. 523p.

Aubréville, A. "La forêt dense de la Lobaye." Cahiers La Maboké (Paris) 2, 1 (1964):5-9.

AUBRY

Aubry, Boulvert and Sechet. "Un service offert aux pedologues: Représentation automatique d'un caractère spatial." Cahiers ORSTOM (PEDOL) 18, 3-4 (1980):261-272.

AUDRU

Audru, J. Les pâturages de la région de Bossembélé-Yaloké. Diagnostics et propositions de gestion (République Centrafricaine). Direction Générale de l'Elevage et des Industries Animales. Direction du Projet Développement Elevage Ouest (P.D.E.O.), Sous-Projet Agropastoral/I.M.V.T., Maisons Alfort, 1983. 30p. multigr.

Audru, J. and G. Boudet. Pâturages de la zone sud de la République Centrafricaine + carte à 1/50 000 du Ranch de Gomoko. I.E.M.V.T. Maisons Alfort, 1964. 213p. multigr.

Audru, J. and M. Clair. Rapport sur le projet: Assainissement d'une zone d'élevage à Bambari et Ranch du métissage. I.E.M.V.T., Maisons Alfort, 1969. 68p. multigr.

Audru, J. and P. Hédin. Bilan des études agrostologiques en République Centrafricaine. I.E.M.V.T., Maisons Alfort, 1971. 58p. multigr.

AUGAGNEUR

Augagneur, V. Erreurs et brutalités coloniales. Paris: Montaigne, 1927.

AUGOUARD, C. L.

Augouard, Chanoine Louis. Physionomie documentaire ou vie inconnue de Mgr. Augouard. Poitiers: Editions de l'Auteur, 1934. 671p.

Augouard, Chanoine Louis. Guirlande enchevêtrée d'anecdotes congolaises. Poitiers: ?, 1934. 255p.

AUGOUARD, Mgr. P.

Cf. Berger, Augustin. “Prosper Augouard.” Hommes et Destins, Académie des Sciences d’Outre Mer. Part 2, volume 1, 1977.

Augouard, Monseigneur Prosper. Vingt-huit années au Congo. 2 vols. Poitiers: Société Française d'Imprimerie et de Librairie, 1905. 503p. and 648p.
both volumes downloadables at http://gallica.bnf.fr/

Augouard, Monseigneur Prosper. Trente-six années au Congo—Lettres. Poitiers: 1914. 525p.

Augouard, Monseigneur Prosper. Quarante-quatre années au Congo—Lettres. Evreux, France: Poussin, 1921. 512p.

Augouard, Monseigneur Prosper. "L’anthropophagie dans le bassin de l’Oubangui (Cannibalism in the Ubangi River basin)." Annales apostoliques, Congrégation de la Congrégation du Saint-Esprit [Paris], (1890):85-102.

Augouard, Monseigneur Prosper. "La mission de l'Oubangui." Conférence du 03-06-1890. Poitiers: Oudin, 1890.
downloadable at http://gallica.bnf.fr/

Augouard, Monseigneur Prosper. "La mission de l'Oubangui." Poitiers: Oudin, 1890. 54p.

Augouard, Monseigneur Prosper. "Les Peuplades du Haut-Oubangui." Le Correspondant, 25 Dec. 1894.

Augouard, Monseigneur Prosper. "Dernier voyage dans l'Oubanghi et l'Alima." Ligugé (Vienne) : Impr. de M. Bluté, (1899), 30 p.
downloadable at http://gallica.bnf.fr/

There was a boat that seemed to meet the [Marchand] mission's needs admirably, the large, detachable, relatively new Léon XIII, owned by the Catholic diocese of the Upper Ubangi. But crusty Bishop Prosper-Philippe Augouard, fierce apostle of a church that regarded the republic served by Marchand as satanic, refused to discuss the matter, even after the modest tender of one hundred thousand francs. Whatever slim prospects there were for obtaining the Léon XIII had probably been dashed months earlier when Baratier, on Marchand's orders, had turned back a Catholic caravan in order to keep the Brazzaville route opened to essential civil and military supplies." (Lewis, The Race to Fashoda, p. 176.)

AUMASSIP

Aumassip, Ginette. "La poterie de Batalimo." In R. de Bayle des Hermens, Recherches Préhistoriques en République Centrafricaine. Paris: Labethno, 1975, pp. 221-33.

AURAFRIQUE cf. MINING, MINERALS, GOLD, DIAMONDS, CONVENTION RELATIVE AU DÉVELOPPEMENT DU SECTEUR MINIER,
Le gérant de la société Aurafrique, M. Bill John Howard

Cf. Fleury, K. "GOUVERNEMENT-SOCIETE AURAFRIQUE: UNE CONVENTION QUI VAUT DE L'OR." Le Confident, 30 January 2006, www.leconfident.net

Une cérémonie de signature de la Convention relative au développement du secteur minier a eu lieu vendredi passé, dans l'enceinte du Ministère des Mines, de l'Energie et de l'Hydraulique, entre l'Etat Centrafricain et la société Aurafrique. Dans son discours introductif, le Ministre Sylvain Ndoundigaï a fait savoir qu'après les états généraux du secteur minier qui s'étaient tenus à Bangui, sa première préoccupation, a été de procéder à l'industrialisation de l'exploitation du secteur minier centrafricain afin de jouer son rôle de « mamelle de l'économie ».
Tout en reconnaissant que l'exploitation artisanale du diamant et l'or constitue à l'heure actuelle 40,5% des richesses de l'Etat Centrafricain, et dans le souci de hisser la production nationale au même diapason des autres pays producteurs du diamant et l'or, il s'est inspiré du modèle minier Malien pour aboutir à la signature de cette Convention, relative à l'ouverture de la première mine d'or à Ndassima dans la Ouaka.
Le Ministre a fait mention de ce que l'Etat Centrafricain, contrairement à d'autres pays producteurs a non seulement arraché 20% des actions de cette société mais, bénéficiera aussi des Taxes sur la Valeur Ajoutée (TVA), les taxes superficiaires ainsi que de la taxe ad valorem. Cette Convention, d'un montant total de 100.000.000 millions de dollars, permettra à notre pays d'augmenter la production nationale d'or à des millions de tonnes/ an.
Le gérant de la société Aurafrique, M. Bill John Howard pour sa part a remercié le département des Mines pour la franche collaboration ces trois dernières années avant de dresser une petite historique de sa société. Pour M. Howard, c'est depuis 1999 que la société Aurafrique a foulé le sol centrafricain dans la phase de recherches mais, les soubresauts politiques qu'a connus le pays ont retardé les recherches entreprises par cette société. Après les événements du 15 mars 2003, la société Aurafrique a agrandi ses activités dans notre pays et les résultats sont d'ailleurs toujours positifs. La signature de cette Convention, marque la fin de la transition entre la phase de recherches et ouvre la voie de ce fait à la phase d'exploitation pour la première mine d'or centrafricain à l'échelle industrielle. Par ailleurs, le Ministre des Finances et du Budget, Théodore Dabanga qui a co-signé avec le Ministre Ndoudingaï cette Convention a fait savoir que cette cérémonie de signature est très importante pour l'économie centrafricaine car, cet investissement permettra au gouvernement centrafricain de créer des emplois et de redistribuer les bénéfices pour le développement de la RCA. Cette déclaration de bonne volonté du Ministre Dabanga, nous emmène à nous poser la question de savoir si réellement le bas peuple profitera des retombées financières de cette Convention. Signalons enfin que 11 géologues centrafricains, trois techniciens géologues et trois administrateurs font partie de l'équipe administrative de la société Aurafrique. (K. Fleury, "GOUVERNEMENT-SOCIETE AURAFRIQUE: UNE CONVENTION QUI VAUT DE L'OR." Le Confident, 30 January 2006, www.leconfident.net) Lundi 30 Janvier 2006, Fleury - K.

AURENCHE

Aurenche, Guy. Droit privé centrafricain: la famille. Bangui: Ecole Nationale d'Administration, 1971, 469p.

AURIC

Auric, H. L'Avenir du Congo et du Congo-Océan. Paris: Les Presses modernes, 1928.

AURILLAC Cf. FRANCE'S RELATIONS, FRANCO-CENTRAFRICAIN JOINT COOPERATION COMMITTEE
Michel Aurillac, French Minister of Coopération, visited Bangui in December 1987

The Central African minister of foreign affairs, Jean-Louis Psimhis, and the French cooperation minister, Michel Aurillac, headed their respective delegations at the meeting of the two countries' joint commission in Bangui in early December [1987]. France provided 75 per cent of gross official development assistance to the CAR in 1981-85, according to OECD figures, and its pivotal role has not diminished since (EIU Country Report, "Central African Republic," 1st Quarter 1988, p. 21)

AUSTEN

Austen Ralph A. and Rita Headrick, “Equatorial Africa under colonial rule.” In David Birmingham and Phyllis M. Martin, eds., History of Central Africa, Vol. II. London and New York: Longman, 1983, pp. 27-94.

AUTIN

Autin, Jean. Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza, un prophète du tiers monde. Paris: Lib. Perrin, 1985. 320p.

AVIATION Cf. MISSION AVIATION FELLOWSHIP
www.maf.org/services/orgs_served.html
Note: MAF serves nearly 600 Christian and humanitarian organizations around the world. It provides plane flights and other services to missionary organizations in the CAR.

AVOIDABLE BLINDNESS Cf. ROTARY INTERNATIONAL
www.rotary6400.org/programs/avoidblindness.htm
Note: provides help to blind Central Africans through Elim Mission in Alindao

AWAKE! Cf. JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES
www.watchtower.org/how_to_contact_us.htm
www.watchtower.org/library/g/2003/11/8/article_01.htm
Cf. "What we learned from the Pygmies." www.watchtower.org/library/g/2003/11/8/article_01.htm,
and Awake!, 22 May 1994, pp. 22-4.

AXMIN INC. of CANADA cf. MINING

Axmin Inc. of Canada explored explored for gold on the Bambari permit. Following the discovery of iron ore at Topa in the northern part of Bambari, Axmin's license was amened to include the right to explore for ferrous and base metals (Harbin, P. W. and J.M. Harris, "Central African Republic." Mining Annual Review 2003, Mining Journal Ltd. CD-ROM, 2003.)

Grynberg Petroleum Company of the United States held a concession in the Doseo and Salamat basins that covered 55,000 sq. kilometers (Africa Energy Intelligence, "Central African Republic: Outlook Brightens for Grynberg." (Africa Energy Intelligence, 343 (2-15 April 2003):4.)

AYANDHO

Ayandho, B.C. "La R.C.A. sur le chemin de l'indépendence économique." Rev. Soc. d'Etud. et d'Expansion, 205 (1963):205-209.

AYMERICH

Aymerich, Général de Division. La Conquête du Cameroun, 1 Aout 1914 - 20 Fevrier 1916. Paris: Payot, 1933, 213p.

AXMINE INCORPORATED Cf. MINING, DIAMONDS
www.axmineinc.com/DesktopDefault.aspx?tabid=138

Axmine Inc. "Bambari permits. CAR operations." Accessed 10 August 2005.

AZOUGO (history, colonization, administration)

Azougo, R.X. L'installation de la sous-préfecture de Bria. Bangui: E.N.S., 1981. Multig.

AZAIS

Azaïs, Etienne. Du Titanic à Bokassa: mes moments historiques. Mandelieu??: E. Azaïs, 1994. 252p. 21 cm.

AZEVEDO

Azevedo, Maria Joaquim. "Sara Demographic Instability as a Consequence of French Colonial Policy in Chad, 1890-1940." Ph.D. dissertation, Duke University, Durham, N.C., 1976. Includes information on pre-colonial Sara history, etc., of relevance for the history of Sara peoples in northern Ubangi-Shari.